23 November 2022 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced hangover represents a significant, yet understudied, global hazard and a large socio-economic burden.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrogen (H2) on relieving drinking and hangover symptoms in 20 healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, matched, crossover interventional trial, participants were matched into pairs and randomly assigned. Study group 1 inhaled placebo air for 1 hr, followed by drinking 100 ml of liquor (40% alcohol) within 10 min, and then pure water. Study group 2 inhaled a mixture of H2 and O2 gas for 1 hr, followed by drinking 100 ml of liquor within 10 min, and then H2 dissolved in water. On a second intervention day (crossover) >/=1 wk later, study-group subjects were switched to the opposite order. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), hangover severity, and cognitive scores were measured.

RESULTS: The BrACs within the H2 group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min (P < 0.05). The H2 group reported having fewer hangover symptoms compared with the placebo group (Placebo: 77% of symptoms absent, 19.7% of mild symptoms, 2.7% of moderate symptoms, 0.7% of severe symptoms; H2: 88.6% of symptoms absent, 10% of mild symptoms, 1.3% of moderate symptoms, 0% of severe symptoms; P < 0.001). H2 treatment improved cognitive testing scores (P < 0.05), including attention and executive functions. Furthermore, consumption of H2 was negatively (beta = -13.016; 95% CI: -17.726, -8.305; P < 0.001) and female sex was positively (beta = 22.611; 95% CI: 16.226, 28.997; P < 0.001) correlated with increased BrACs. Likewise, the consumption of H2 was negatively (OR: 0.035; 95% CI: 0.007, 0.168; P < 0.001) while female sex was positively (OR: 28.838; 95% CI: 5.961, 139.506; P < 0.001) correlated with the severity of hangover symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: H2 decreases BrACs and relieves the symptoms of hangovers.This trial was registered at China Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR2200059988. URL of registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=58359.

27 September 2018 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies examining the next-day cognitive effects of heavy alcohol consumption have produced mixed findings, which may reflect inconsistencies in definitions of 'hangover'. Recent consensus has defined hangover as 'mental and physical symptoms, experienced the day after a single episode of heavy drinking, starting when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) approaches zero'. In light of this, we aimed to review the literature systematically to evaluate and estimate mean effect sizes of the next-day effects of heavy alcohol consumption on cognition.

METHODS: Embase, PubMed and PsycNET databases were searched between December 2016 and May 2018 using terms based on 'alcohol' and 'hangover'. Studies of experimental designs which reported the next-day cognitive effects of heavy alcohol consumption in a 'hangover' group with BAC < 0.02% were reviewed. A total of 805 articles were identified. Thirty-nine full-text articles were screened by two independent reviewers and 19 included in the systematic review; 11 articles provided sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis; 1163 participants across 19 studies conducted since 1970 were included in the analysis. Data for study design, hangover severity, BAC at testing and cognitive performance were extracted and effect estimates calculated.

RESULTS: The systematic review suggested that sustained attention and driving abilities were impaired during hangover. Mixed results were observed for: psychomotor skills, short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) and divided attention. The meta-analysis revealed evidence of impairments in STM [g = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-1.13], LTM (Hedges' g = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.01-1.17) sustained attention (g = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.07-0.87) and psychomotor speed (Hedges' g = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.31-1.00) during alcohol hangover.

CONCLUSION: The research literature suggests that alcohol hangovers may involve impaired cognitive functions and performance of everyday tasks such as driving.

Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality. BD is associated with deficits in verbal memory and executive functions, principally poor inhibitory control. Tentatively, BD may be related to deficits in cognitive flexibility and monitoring of information in working memory. Further studies are needed to determine potential impairments in prospective memory and decision-making. BDs do not seem to show difficulties in planning, short-term memory, attention, processing speed or visuospatial construction. The evidence does not seem to support greater vulnerability in females. Future longitudinal studies should identify the characteristics of extreme trajectories, explore recovery deficits and design intervention programs.

04 August 2017 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

The introduction of health warnings on labels to correct externalities associated with alcohol consumption is heavily debated and has been explored from different perspectives. The current paper aims to analyse the interest and attitudes of Italian university students regarding health warnings on alcoholic beverages and to verify the existence of segments that differ in terms of attitudes towards such warnings. Our results show that young consumers consider health warnings quite important, although the degree of perceived utility differs in relation to the type of warning. Cluster analysis shows the existence of three groups of young consumers with different degrees of attention and perceived utility of warnings on alcoholic beverages, but also in relation to drinking behaviour and awareness of social and health risks related to alcohol consumption. In brief, Italian young adults with moderate consumption behaviour view label warnings positively, while this attitude is weaker among younger adults and those with riskier consumption behaviours. Our findings, albeit limited and based on stated and not revealed data, support the need for appropriate tools to improve the availability of information among young adults on the risks of excessive alcohol consumption and increased awareness of the importance of moderate drinking.

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