26 April 2017 In Cancer

The occurrence of more than 200 diseases, including cancer, can be attributed to alcohol drinking. The global cancer deaths attributed to alcohol-consumption rose from 243,000 in 1990 to 337,400 in 2010. In 2010, cancer deaths due to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.2% of all cancer deaths. Strong epidemiological evidence has established the causal role of alcohol in the development of various cancers, including esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. The evidence for the association between alcohol and other cancers is inconclusive. Because of the high prevalence of ALDH2*2 allele among East Asian populations, East Asians may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of alcohol, with most evidence coming from studies of esophageal cancer and head and neck cancer, while data for other cancers are more limited. The high prevalence of ALDH2*2 allele in East Asian populations may have important public health implications and may be utilized to reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related cancers among East Asians, including: 1) Identification of individuals at high risk of developing alcohol-related cancers by screening for ALDH2 polymorphism; 2) Incorporation of ALDH2 polymorphism screening into behavioral intervention program for promoting alcohol abstinence or reducing alcohol consumption; 3) Using ALDH2 polymorphism as a prognostic indicator for alcohol-related cancers; 4) Targeting ALDH2 for chemoprevention; and 5) Setting guidelines for alcohol consumption among ALDH2 deficient individuals. Future studies should evaluate whether these strategies are effective for preventing the occurrence of alcohol-related cancers.

16 June 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

METHODS: A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45-74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993-1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS: The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and >/=2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher coffee and black tea intake was inversely associated with mortality in never-smokers, light to moderate alcohol intake was inversely associated with mortality regardless of smoking status, heavy alcohol intake was positively associated with mortality in ever-smokers, and there was no association between sugar-sweetened beverages and green tea and mortality.

06 May 2014 In Liver Disease

AIM: To investigate the effect of alcohol on the metabolic syndrome (MS) and fatty liver in Japanese men and women.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical health checkup program at a general hospital. This study involved 18 571 Japanese men and women, 18-88 years of age, with a mean body mass index of 22.6 kg/m(2). A standardized questionnaire was administered. The total amount of alcohol consumed per week was calculated, and categorized into four grades. Fatty liver was examined by ultrasound modified criteria of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and the new International Diabetes Federation.

RESULTS: The prevalence of fatty liver decreased in men and women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, whereas the prevalence of MS was not so changed. The prevalence of fatty liver of any grade in men was lower than that in those with no or minimal alcohol consumption. In women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, prevalence of fatty liver was lower than that in women with no or minimal alcohol consumption. By logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for MS in women with light alcohol consumption was decreased to < 1.0, but this change was not clear in men. The OR for fatty liver was clearly < 1.0 in men with any level of alcohol consumption and in women with light to moderate consumption.

CONCLUSION: Light to moderate alcohol consumption has a favorable effect for fatty liver, but not for MS in Japanese men and women.

06 May 2014 In Liver Disease

OBJECTIVES: The effect of alcohol consumption on the liver is controversial. Recent reports have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption decreases the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. The role of alcohol consumption in the development of fatty liver (FL), however, has not been studied definitively. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol consumption and FL in a large Japanese population.

METHODS: A total of 7,431 asymptomatic male subjects who underwent a complete medical survey in our institute between May 2007 and July 2008 were recruited. Cases positive for hepatitis B or C viruses, potential hepatotoxic drug intake, or under treatment for metabolic disorders were excluded. FL was defined by ultrasonography. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) were measured by computed tomography. Independent and significant predictors associated with FL were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: Of the initial study candidates, 130 (1.7%) were positive for hepatitis B and 66 (0.8%) were positive for hepatitis C. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,599 men (50.9+/-8.1 years) were studied cross-sectionally. Light (40-140 g/week) and moderate (140-280 g/week) alcohol consumption significantly and independently reduced the likelihood of FL (odds ratio=0.824 and 0.754, 95% confidence interval=0.683-0.994 and 0.612-0.928, P=0.044 and 0.008, respectively) by multivariate analysis after adjusting for potential confounding variables. VAT, SAT, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose were significant predictors of the increased prevalence of FL, whereas age was a predictor of the decreased prevalence of FL.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FL was significantly and independently decreased by light and moderate alcohol consumption in men of an asymptomatic Japanese population.

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