28 September 2023 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Studies have shown an inverse association between alcohol consumption and kidney cancer risk. We postulate that this inverse association may be further influenced by other risk factors.

METHODS: We used an Australian cohort, the 45 and Up Study, recruited between 2005 and 2009 to investigate the association between alcohol consumption, and other potential risk factors and kidney cancer incidence. The median follow-up was 5.4 years.

RESULTS: Of the 267,357 participants aged </=45 years living in New South Wales, 497 were diagnosed with kidney cancer. There was a significant inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk of kidney cancer (P = .027), and a significant inverse dose-response relationship (P = .011). There was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status (P interaction = .001). Participants residing in higher socioeconomic areas (the two most advantaged quintiles) who consumed 8-10 drinks or greater than 10 drinks per week, respectively, had a lower risk of kidney cancer compared to the group who consumed 1-4 drinks per week (hazard ratio (HR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.76, HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83) with a dose-response trend of HR 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.93) per 7 drink increase in weekly alcohol consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: There could be an inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk in those residents in higher socioeconomic areas.

28 September 2023 In General Health

Brain gray- and white matter changes is well described in alcohol-dependent elderly subjects; however, the effect of lower levels of alcohol consumption on the brain is poorly understood. We investigated the impact of different amounts of weekly alcohol consumption on brain structure in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds living in Gothenburg, Sweden. Cross-sectional data from 676 participants from The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study 2014-16 were included. Current alcohol consumers were divided into seven groups based on self-reported weekly amounts of alcohol consumption in grams (g) (0-50 g/week, used as reference group, 51-100 g/week, 101-150 g/week, 151-200 g/week, 201-250 g/week, 251-300 g/week, and > 300 g/week). Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were assessed on T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images using FreeSurfer 5.3, and white matter integrity assessed on diffusion tensor images, using tract-based statistics in FSL. General linear models were carried out to estimate associations between alcohol consumption and gray- and white matter changes in the brain. Self-reported consumption above 250 g/week was associated with thinning in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, the right precentral gyrus, and the right lateral occipital cortex, in addition to reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) diffusively spread in many tracts all over the brain. No changes were found in subcortical gray matter structures. These results suggest that there is a non-linear relationship between alcohol consumption and structural brain changes, in which loss of cortical thickness only occur in non-demented 70-year-olds who consume more than 250 g/week.

28 September 2023 In General Health

Background The relationship between alcohol consumption and ectopic fat distribution, both known factors for cardiovascular disease, remains understudied. Therefore, we aimed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and ectopic adiposity in adults at risk for cardiovascular disease.

Methods and Results In this cross-sectional analysis, we categorized alcohol intake among participants in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) as follows (drinks/day): 2 (heavy drinking), former drinking, and lifetime abstention. Binge drinking was defined as consuming >/=5 drinks on 1 occasion in the past month. Visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular fat area, pericardial fat volume, and hepatic fat attenuation were measured using noncontrast computed tomography. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations between categories of alcohol consumption and natural log-transformed fat in ectopic depots. We included 6756 MESA participants (62.1+/-10.2 years; 47.2% women), of whom 6734 and 1934 had chest computed tomography (pericardial and hepatic fat) and abdominal computed tomography (subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral fat), respectively. In adjusted analysis, heavy drinking, relative to lifetime abstention, was associated with a higher (relative percent difference) pericardial 15.1 [95% CI, 7.1-27.7], hepatic 3.4 [95% CI, 0.1-6.8], visceral 2.5 [95% CI, -10.4 to 17.2], and intermuscular 5.2 [95% CI, -6.6 to 18.4] fat but lower subcutaneous fat -3.5 [95% CI, -15.5 to 10.2]). The associations between alcohol consumption and ectopic adiposity exhibited a J-shaped pattern. Binge drinking, relative to light-to-moderate drinking, was also associated with higher ectopic fat.

Conclusions Alcohol consumption had a J-shaped association with ectopic adiposity. Both heavy alcohol intake and binge alcohol drinking were associated with higher ectopic fat.

28 September 2023 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke in China is increasing, along with a clear trend in the prevalence of risk factors. Alcohol consumption is also a risk factor for stroke. Many cohort studies have explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke risk. However, findings have been inconsistent.

METHODS: We used cluster sampling to select 13 districts and counties (at the same level) in Chongqing, China. Then, we used stratified random sampling to distribute the number of people in each district and county. 23,308 adults aged 30-79 were recruited between October 2018 and February 2019. Follow-up was conducted through a monitoring system and questionnaires until September 2022. Information on alcohol consumption and other covariates was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked to report their weekly frequency of drinking over the past year and weekly intake of various alcoholic beverages in general. The frequency of drinking was divided into three categories: 1-2 d/week, 3-5 d/week, and 6-7 d/week. The average daily alcohol consumption is calculated based on the amount of alcohol contained in different alcoholic beverages. It is classified as nondrinker (0 g/day), light (0 to 12 g/day), moderate (13 to 36 g/day), and high (> 36 g/day). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between alcohol consumption and stroke risk. Results are shown as multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

RESULTS: With an average follow-up of 3.80 years, there were 310 new stroke events. The incidence of total stroke was 368.69 per 100,000 person-years. Overall, after adjusting for covariates, moderate alcohol consumption (average daily alcohol consumption 13-36 g/d) was associated with a lower risk of total stroke (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25-0.92) compared with nondrinkers. The adjusted HR and 95% CI for total stroke and ischemic stroke for those who drank alcohol 6-7 days per week were 0.60(0.37, 0.96) and 0.53(0.30, 0.94), respectively. The risk of total stroke (HR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17-0.89) was reduced in a pattern of drinking 6-7 days per week but with a mean alcohol consumption of less than 36 g/d. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and hemorrhagic stroke.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of total stroke. And healthy drinking patterns should be of more significant concern.

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