22 October 2021 In Diabetes

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adults living in Ningbo and to examine the association between alcohol consumption and MetS and its medical components.

DESIGN: A representative survey in Ningbo was conducted in 2015 covering socio-demography. A FFQ together with additional questionnaires was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, diet, demography, lifestyle and medical information. Multivariable logistic regression and generalised linear models were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption and both MetS and its medical components, respectively.

SETTING: Ningbo, China.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2853 adults >/= 20 years (44 % men) in this final analysis.

RESULTS: The prevalence of frequent alcohol drinkers and MetS was 29.9 % and 28.0 %, respectively. Significantly higher prevalence of MetS and mean values of medical components were found in the group of frequent alcohol drinkers with an exception for HDL-cholesterol, compared with less or non-alcohol drinkers. Frequent alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of developing MetS and positively associated with medical components excepting waist circumference.

CONCLUSIONS: Frequent alcohol consumption contributed to a higher prevalence of MetS and unfavourable influence on MetS and its medical components among Chinese adults. A public health intervention on alcohol restriction is necessary for the prevention and control of the ongoing epidemic MetS.

22 October 2021 In Dementia

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption has been reported to impair the physical and mental health of the elderly. This study aimed to explore the association between alcohol consumption patterns in midlife and cognition in the elderly among the Chinese population.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Study subjects were individuals aged >/=45 years in the shared database of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, who were followed up in 2006. A questionnaire was used to collect information about alcohol consumption (frequency, amount and type). Alcohol consumption (grams/week) was classified into none, light (/=336.01) categories in men, and none, light (<42) and moderate (>/=42) categories in women. Cognitive function was measured in 2006 using a subset of items from the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. The lowest quintile was used as the cut-off point for cognitive impairment. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied. The study involved 1926 participants with a mean age of 56.91 years, and men accounted for 51.66% of the total participants. Drinking behaviours and cognitive scores had significant sexual difference (P < 0.001). Cognitive impairment was identified in 135 men and 237 women. Compared with light drinking, heavy drinking and non-drinking were associated with cognitive impairment in men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI were 2.19 (1.59-3.00), 1.54 (1.21-1.96), respectively; P < 0.001]. Compared with light drinkers, female non-drinkers and moderate drinkers were associated with cognitive impairment [aOR and 95% CI were 1.54 (1.16-2.03) and 1.75 (1.08-2.85), respectively; P < 0.001].

CONCLUSIONS: Scientific evidence on the adverse effects of heavy drinking on elderly cognition and the possibly protective effects of light drinking could influence policy decisions on alcohol consumption in China.

23 September 2021 In Cardiovascular System

The causal effects of alcohol-in-moderation on cardiometabolic health are continuously debated. Mendelian randomization (MR) is an established method to address causal questions in observational studies. We performed a systematic review of the current evidence from MR studies on the association between alcohol consumption and cardiometabolic diseases, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular risk factors. We performed a systematic search of the literature, including search terms on type of design and exposure. We assessed methodological quality based on key elements of the MR design: use of a full instrumental variable analysis and validation of the three key MR assumptions. We additionally looked at exploration of non-linearity. We reported the direction of the studied associations. Our search yielded 24 studies that were eligible for inclusion. A full instrumental variable analysis was performed in 17 studies (71%) and 13 out of 24 studies (54%) validated all three key assumptions. Five studies (21%) assessed potential non-linearity. In general, null associations were reported for genetically predicted alcohol consumption with the primary outcomes cardiovascular disease (67%) and diabetes (75%), while the only study on all-cause mortality reported a detrimental association. Considering the heterogeneity in methodological quality of the included MR studies, it is not yet possible to draw conclusions on the causal role of moderate alcohol consumption on cardiometabolic health. As MR is a rapidly evolving field, we expect that future MR studies, especially with recent developments regarding instrument selection and non-linearity methodology, will further substantiate this discussion.

23 September 2021 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: This study examined the relative contribution of alcoholic beverage types to overall alcohol consumption and associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related harms among adults.

METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from adult samples in two cities involved in the Global Smart Drinking Goals (GSDG) initiative in each of five countries (Belgium, Brazil, China, South Africa, United States). Survey measures included past-30-day consumption of beer, wine, flavored alcoholic drinks, spirits, and homemade alcohol; past-30-day heavy drinking; 14 alcohol-related harms in the past 12 months; and demographic characteristics. Within in each country, we computed the proportion of total alcohol consumption for each beverage type. Regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative associations between consumption of each alcoholic beverage type, heavy alcohol use, and alcohol-related harms, controlling for demographic characteristics.

RESULTS: Beer accounted for at least half of total alcohol consumption in GSDG cities in Belgium, Brazil, the U.S., and South Africa, and 35% in China. Regression analyses indicated that greater beer consumption was associated with heavy drinking episodes and with alcohol-related harms in the cities in Belgium, Brazil, South Africa, and the U.S. Significant increases in heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms were also consistently observed for spirits consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Beer accounts for the greatest proportion of total alcohol consumption in most of the GSDG cities and was consistently associated with more heavy drinking episodes and alcohol-related harms. Reducing beer consumption through evidence-based interventions may therefore have the greatest impact on hazardous drinking and alcohol-related harms.

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