Drinking Patterns

Drinking Patterns (71)

During the early months of 2020, the world experienced a novel, violent, and relentless pandemic era. By the end of the year more than seventy-seven million cases of COVID-19 had been reported around the globe. Due to it being a highly contagious disease, the recommended measures adopted by most nations to prevent infection include social distancing and quarantine. How did these measures affect people's relationship with alcohol consumption in cultures where alcohol plays an important social role? A questionnaire-based study, designed to follow the drinking behaviour of people before and during lockdown was applied to two different cultural groups impacted by the pandemic during the strict phase of lockdown. These are the British and Spanish populations (179 participants from each country were interviewed). Considering the frequency of consumption of the alcoholic beverages evaluated (wine, beer, cider, whisky and spirits), the results showed that a significant lockdown*country interaction was observed. Overall, Spanish participants consumed alcoholic beverages less frequently during lockdown than before, while British participants reported no change in their consumption habits. Spaniards' decrease in alcohol consumption is related to the absence of a social contexts while Britons seems to have adapted their consumption to the modified context. Results suggest that, alcohol consumption is a central core of the British culture, while for the Spanish, socialization is more a cultural characteristic than the alcohol itself.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in alcohol consumption (total alcohol and types of alcoholic beverages) of the Greek EPIC cohort participants (28,572) during a 17-year period (1994-2011), with alcohol information being recorded repeatedly over time. Descriptive statistics were used to show crude trends in drinking behavior. Mixed-effects models were used to study the consumption of total alcohol, wine, beer and spirits/other alcoholic beverages in relation to birth cohort, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors. We observed a decreasing trend of alcohol intake as age increased, consistent for total alcohol consumption and the three types of beverages. Older birth cohorts had lower initial total alcohol consumption (8 vs. 10 g/day) and steeper decline in wine, spirits/other alcoholic beverages and total alcohol consumption compared to younger cohorts. Higher education and smoking at baseline had a positive association with longitudinal total alcohol consumption, up to +30% (vs. low education) and more than +25% (vs. non-smoking) respectively, whereas female gender, obesity, history of heart attack, diabetes, peptic ulcer and high blood pressure at baseline had a negative association of -85%, -25%, -16%, -37%, -22% and -24% respectively. Alcohol consumption changed over age with different trends among the studied subgroups and types of alcohol, suggesting targeted monitoring of alcohol consumption.

PURPOSE: A period of first increasing and then decreasing alcohol consumption in Finland in the 2000s offers an opportunity to scrutinize how population-level changes stem from varying developments in different population subgroups and drinking patterns. We examine 1) whose consumption changed in terms of age, sex, and level of consumption, and 2) how drinking patterns changed and whether the changes indicated steps toward a more Mediterranean drinking style.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main data source was the Finnish Drinking Habits surveys of 2000, 2008, and 2016 of the general Finnish population aged 15?69?years (n?=?6703, response rates 59?78%).

RESULTS: Before 2008, consumption increased particularly among women and Finns aged 50+. After 2008, abstinence became more frequent and regular drinking less frequent. Additionally, heavy episodic drinking decreased, especially among men and in younger age groups. However, compared to earlier, similar levels of the volume of alcohol consumption did not result from a more Mediterranean drinking style, i.e. consuming smaller quantities more frequently. Finnish men continue to report very high maximum drinking amounts. The changes in both periods occurred as collective changes across the whole continuum of consumption from light to heavy drinkers.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that during the period of decreasing per capita alcohol consumption, both the frequency of drinking overall and of heavy episodic drinking decreased, but heavy episodic drinking is still prevalent.

BACKGROUND: This study examined the relative contribution of alcoholic beverage types to overall alcohol consumption and associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related harms among adults.

METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data were collected from adult samples in two cities involved in the Global Smart Drinking Goals (GSDG) initiative in each of five countries (Belgium, Brazil, China, South Africa, United States). Survey measures included past-30-day consumption of beer, wine, flavored alcoholic drinks, spirits, and homemade alcohol; past-30-day heavy drinking; 14 alcohol-related harms in the past 12 months; and demographic characteristics. Within in each country, we computed the proportion of total alcohol consumption for each beverage type. Regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relative associations between consumption of each alcoholic beverage type, heavy alcohol use, and alcohol-related harms, controlling for demographic characteristics.

RESULTS: Beer accounted for at least half of total alcohol consumption in GSDG cities in Belgium, Brazil, the U.S., and South Africa, and 35% in China. Regression analyses indicated that greater beer consumption was associated with heavy drinking episodes and with alcohol-related harms in the cities in Belgium, Brazil, South Africa, and the U.S. Significant increases in heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms were also consistently observed for spirits consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Beer accounts for the greatest proportion of total alcohol consumption in most of the GSDG cities and was consistently associated with more heavy drinking episodes and alcohol-related harms. Reducing beer consumption through evidence-based interventions may therefore have the greatest impact on hazardous drinking and alcohol-related harms.

Alcohol use has been causally linked to more than 200 disease and injury conditions, as defined by three-digit ICD-10 codes. The understanding of how alcohol use is related to these conditions is essential to public health and policy research. Accordingly, this study presents a narrative review of different dose-response relationships for alcohol use. Relative-risk (RR) functions were obtained from various comparative risk assessments. Two main dimensions of alcohol consumption are used to assess disease and injury risk: (1) volume of consumption, and (2) patterns of drinking, operationalized via frequency of heavy drinking occasions. Lifetime abstention was used as the reference group. Most dose-response relationships between alcohol and outcomes are monotonic, but for diabetes type 2 and ischemic diseases, there are indications of a curvilinear relationship, where light to moderate drinking is associated with lower risk compared with not drinking (i.e., RR < 1). In general, women experience a greater increase in RR per gram of alcohol consumed than men. The RR per gram of alcohol consumed was lower for people of older ages. RRs indicated that alcohol use may interact synergistically with other risk factors, in particular with socioeconomic status and other behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, or physical inactivity. The literature on the impact of genetic constitution on dose-response curves is underdeveloped, but certain genetic variants are linked to an increased RR per gram of alcohol consumed for some diseases. When developing alcohol policy measures, including low-risk drinking guidelines, dose-response relationships must be taken into consideration.

BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to explore the differences in subjective experiences of intoxication depending on drinking location and drink type.

METHODS: Data came from 32,194 respondents to The Global Drug Survey (GDS) 2015, an annual, cross-sectional, online survey. Respondents selected their usual drinking location (home alone: home with partner/family: house parties: pubs/bars or clubs) and usual drink (wine; beer/cider/lager; spirits or alcopops/coolers). They indicated how many drinks they required to reach three stages of intoxication (feeling the effects; an ideal stage of intoxication; and the tipping point) and how frequently they reached each stage.

RESULTS: Drink type affected grams of alcohol reported to reach the tipping point: 109?gm wine, 127?gm alcopops, 133?gm of beer, and 134?gm of spirts. Respondents who drank at home alone, or in clubs reached their tipping point more frequently compared to other locations.

CONCLUSIONS: Where people drink, and the type of alcohol they drink, affected the amount of alcohol reported to reach different stages of intoxication. Understanding why different drinking locations, and drink types lead to a need for greater consumption to reach an ideal state of drunkenness, such as social cues from other people who drink, may enable people to reduce their drinking.

BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol consumption is a major public health concern that should be continuously monitored. This study aims (i) to analyze country-level trends in weekly alcohol consumption, drunkenness and early initiation in alcohol consumption and drunkenness among 15-year-old adolescents from 39 countries and regions across Europe and North America between 2002 and 2014 and (ii) to examine the geographical patterns in adolescent alcohol-related behaviours.

METHODS: The sample was composed of 250 161 adolescents aged 15 from 39 countries and regions from Europe and North America. Survey years were 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. The alcohol consumption and drunkenness items of the HBSC questionnaire were employed. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance.

RESULTS: Data show a general decrease in all four alcohol variables between 2002 and 2014 except for some countries. However, there is variability both within a country (depending on the alcohol-related behaviour under study) and across countries (in the beginning and shape of trends). Some countries have not reduced or even increased their levels in some variables. Although some particularities have persisted over time, there are no robust patterns by regions.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite an overall decrease in adolescent alcohol consumption, special attention should be paid to those countries where declines are not present, or despite decreasing, rates are still high. Further research is needed to clarify factors associated with adolescent drinking, to better understand country specificities and to implement effective policies.

Objectives: Alcohol consumption and harms among older people are increasing. We examined different demographic characteristics and drinking patterns among an older population. Methods: Secondary analyses of nationally representative Australian data; subjects aged 50+ years (N = 10,856). Two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify demographic groups and alcohol consumption behaviours. Results: Three groups were identified: Group 1 (older, unmarried, and lived alone): >65 years, moderate drinkers, poorest health, psychological distress, social disadvantage, smokers, illicit drug users, and more frequent previous alcohol treatment. Group 3 (older married): >65 years, good health, low psychological distress, less likely to drink at risky levels, and one in five drank daily. Group 2 (younger married): 50-64 years, mostly employed, highest proportion of risky drinkers and of 5+ standard drinks per session, and liberal drinking attitudes with most concern from others about their drinking. Discussion: These demographic typologies can inform targeted prevention efforts for an estimated 1.3 million adults older than 50 years drinking at risky levels.
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study was to examine the effect of calorie labelling and physical activity equivalence labelling of alcoholic drinks on drinking intentions in participants of lower and higher socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: Participants (N = 1,084) of higher and lower SEP were recruited into an online study and randomized into one of three drink label conditions; Control (standard alcohol labelling), kcal labelling (standard labelling plus drink kilocalorie information), or kcal + PACE labelling (standard labelling and kilocalorie information, plus information on physical activity needed to compensate for drink calories). After viewing drink labels, participants reported alcohol drinking intentions. Participants also completed measures of alcoholic drink energy content estimation, beliefs about how calorie labelling would affect health behaviour and support for calorie labelling of alcoholic drinks. RESULTS: kcal labelling (d = 0.31) and kcal + PACE labelling (d = 0.38) conditions had significantly lower drinking intentions compared to the control condition (ps

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, the two most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, share a common pathology but have largely been considered disparate diseases. Liver diseases are widely underestimated, but their prevalence is increasing worldwide.

The Western diet (high-fat, high-sugar) and binge drinking (rapid consumption of alcohol in a short period of time) are two highly prevalent features of standard life in the United States, and both are linked to the development and progression of liver disease. Yet, few studies have been conducted to elucidate their potential interactions. Data shows binge drinking is on the rise in several age groups, and poor dietary trends continue to be prevalent.

This review serves to summarize the sparse findings on the hepatic consequences of the combination of binge drinking and consuming a Western diet, while also drawing conclusions on potential future impacts. The data suggest the potential for a looming liver disease epidemic, indicating that more research on its progression as well as its prevention is needed on this critical topic.

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