Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - often referred to simply as diabetes - is a condition in which the body either does not produce any insulin (Type 1) or not enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas to overcome the underlying insulin resistance of the cells in the body (Type 2). Insulin enables glucose (sugar) to enter the cells in order to be stored as glycogen or oxidized for energy. These defects cause glucose to accumulate in the blood, inevitably leading to serious complications. The positive effects of moderate wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption are only relevant for individuals with type-2 diabetes.

 

Type 2 Diabetes

 

The underlying defect is insulin resistance due to obesity and lack of exercise. Insulin resistance means that the cells do not respond to the insulin signal. In return, the pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by increasing the insulin output which enables the glucose to enter the cells. Once the beta-cells cannot compensate the high demand of insulin for proper function, the glucose will remain in the blood leading to an increased blood sugar level. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

 

In 2010, the International Diabetes Federation estimated the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus at 6.6% in adults. Type-2 diabetes is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world and a major cause of premature illness and death in most countries. To prevent diabetic complications and premature death, patients are recommended to adopt a healthy lifestyle.  

 

Evidence from randomized-controlled intervention studies as well as from population studies have demonstrated that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages will improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant people. Accordingly, large prospective studies have shown a reduced risk for developing the metabolic syndrome (MS, name for a group of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease, stroke and diabetes. A metabolic syndrome exists when at least 3 of the following risk factors are present: overweight, high triglyceride level, elevated plasma glucose level,  low HDL cholesterol level and high blood pressure) . A moderate intake of  wine as well as other alcoholic beverages exerts a beneficial effect on MS. In addition, large population studies suggest that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with a lower diabetic risk than abstaining or heavy drinking, independently of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Meta-analyses reported a J-shaped relationship for men and women with a reduced risk for a moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and an increased risk for more than 50-60 g/d. With regards to wine and diabetes, most studies found  beneficial effects. But not only the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is decreased with moderate drinking; it may also reduce CHD and CVD mortality in diabetics as well as potential cardiac complications relating to diabetes. This is especially important considering that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type-2 diabetes, who also have a 4-fold increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Research indicates that this risk decreases considerably when they consume wine moderately with meals.

 

Considering the world-wide epidemic of type 2 diabetes which is expected to rise even further and is associated with major health care costs, preventing diabetes is a major public health issue. It seems that drinking wine in moderation could  help reduce type 2 diabetes and thereby contribute to public health.


The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

 

 

 

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association between baseline and 9 year change in alcohol consumption and long-term risk of diabetes and whether these associations might be modified by sex and/or BMI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 12,042 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants without prevalent diabetes (55% women, 78% white, mean age 54 years). Alcohol consumption was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989) and visit 4 (1996-1998). We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes risk by baseline drinking categories and change in alcohol consumption, stratified by sex and obesity status. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21 years, there were 3795 incident cases of diabetes. Among women, consuming 8-14…
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of a healthy lifestyle, involving seven low-risk factors mentioned in diabetes management guidelines (no current smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, healthy diet, less sedentary behavior, adequate sleep duration, and appropriate social connection), with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 13,366 participants with baseline type 2 diabetes from the UK Biobank free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Lifestyle information was collected through a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 1,561 deaths were documented, with 625 from cancer, 370 from CVD, 115 from respiratory disease, 81 from digestive disease, and 74 from neurodegenerative disease. In multivariate-adjusted model, each lifestyle…
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a risk predictor for myocardial infarction and stroke. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at higher risk for such conditions. The association of alcohol consumption with IMT is still controversial. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We undertook a cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized in the Department of Endocrinology at Zhoushan Hospital from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2015. Patients with a past medical history of cerebrovascular events, acute myocardial ischemia or unable to provide a detailed alcohol consumption history were excluded. Carotid IMT, together with blood biochemical examinations were collected. Data were analyzed using least significant difference t test, Tamhane's T2 test, Levene test, chi2-test and binary logistic regression model. RESULTS:…
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Chinese adults living in Ningbo and to examine the association between alcohol consumption and MetS and its medical components. DESIGN: A representative survey in Ningbo was conducted in 2015 covering socio-demography. A FFQ together with additional questionnaires was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, diet, demography, lifestyle and medical information. Multivariable logistic regression and generalised linear models were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption and both MetS and its medical components, respectively. SETTING: Ningbo, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2853 adults >/= 20 years (44 % men) in this final analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frequent alcohol drinkers and MetS was 29.9 % and 28.0 %, respectively.…
IMPORTANCE: Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Identifying modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, that can be useful in delaying or preventing progression to overt type 2 diabetes is of particular interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study included women from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort who reported a history of gestational diabetes and were followed up from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2017, as part of the Diabetes & Women's Health Study. Data analysis was performed from 2020 to 2021. EXPOSURES: Dietary intakes, including alcohol,…
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