Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - often referred to simply as diabetes - is a condition in which the body either does not produce any insulin (Type 1) or not enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas to overcome the underlying insulin resistance of the cells in the body (Type 2). Insulin enables glucose (sugar) to enter the cells in order to be stored as glycogen or oxidized for energy. These defects cause glucose to accumulate in the blood, inevitably leading to serious complications. The positive effects of moderate wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption are only relevant for individuals with type-2 diabetes.

 

Type 2 Diabetes

 

The underlying defect is insulin resistance due to obesity and lack of exercise. Insulin resistance means that the cells do not respond to the insulin signal. In return, the pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by increasing the insulin output which enables the glucose to enter the cells. Once the beta-cells cannot compensate the high demand of insulin for proper function, the glucose will remain in the blood leading to an increased blood sugar level. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

 

In 2010, the International Diabetes Federation estimated the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus at 6.6% in adults. Type-2 diabetes is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world and a major cause of premature illness and death in most countries. To prevent diabetic complications and premature death, patients are recommended to adopt a healthy lifestyle.  

 

Evidence from randomized-controlled intervention studies as well as from population studies have demonstrated that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages will improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant people. Accordingly, large prospective studies have shown a reduced risk for developing the metabolic syndrome (MS, name for a group of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease, stroke and diabetes. A metabolic syndrome exists when at least 3 of the following risk factors are present: overweight, high triglyceride level, elevated plasma glucose level,  low HDL cholesterol level and high blood pressure) . A moderate intake of  wine as well as other alcoholic beverages exerts a beneficial effect on MS. In addition, large population studies suggest that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with a lower diabetic risk than abstaining or heavy drinking, independently of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Meta-analyses reported a J-shaped relationship for men and women with a reduced risk for a moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and an increased risk for more than 50-60 g/d. With regards to wine and diabetes, most studies found  beneficial effects. But not only the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is decreased with moderate drinking; it may also reduce CHD and CVD mortality in diabetics as well as potential cardiac complications relating to diabetes. This is especially important considering that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type-2 diabetes, who also have a 4-fold increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Research indicates that this risk decreases considerably when they consume wine moderately with meals.

 

Considering the world-wide epidemic of type 2 diabetes which is expected to rise even further and is associated with major health care costs, preventing diabetes is a major public health issue. It seems that drinking wine in moderation could  help reduce type 2 diabetes and thereby contribute to public health.


The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

 

 

 

AIMS: Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of several dietary patterns plus physical activity to reduce diabetes onset in people with prediabetes. However, there is no evidence on the effect from the Mediterranean diet on the progression from prediabetes to diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the effect from high adherence to Mediterranean diet on the risk of diabetes in individuals with prediabetes. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Spanish Primary Care setting. A total of 1184 participants with prediabetes based on levels of fasting plasma glucose and/or glycated hemoglobin were followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. A total of 210 participants developed diabetes type 2 during the follow up. Hazard ratios of diabetes onset were estimated by Cox…
PURPOSE: Previous meta-analyses assessed the association of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MedDiet) with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since then, new large-scale cohort studies have been published. In addition, dose-response relation was not previously investigated and the certainty of evidence was not assessed. We aimed to explore the dose-response relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D. METHODS: We did a systematic search using PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science up to April 2021 for prospective cohort studies of the relationship between adherence to the MedDiet and the risk of T2D in the general population. The summary relative risks (RR) and 95%CI were estimated by applying a random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen prospective…
AIMS: We examined associations of baseline alcohol drinking with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and explore whether the associations were modified by genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All participants were aged 50+ (mean = 60.45; standard deviation = 6.88) years. Information of alcohol consumption was collected at baseline from 2003 to 2008. Incident T2D was defined as fasting glucose >/=7.0 mmol/L or post-load glucose >/=11.1 mmol/L at follow-up examination (2008-2012), self-reported T2D and/or initiation of hypoglycaemia medication or insulin during follow-up. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose >/=5.6 mmol/L and
Despite earlier meta-analyses on the association between adherences to Mediterranean diet (MD) and risk of diabetes, there is no comprehensive and updated study assessing this issue. Furthermore, no earlier study has examined the nonlinear dose-response relationship between consumption of Mediterranean diet and risk of diabetes. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was done to investigate the linear and non-linear dose-response relationship between Mediterranean diet and incidence of diabetes. Using relevant keywords, electronic searches for prospective studies were conducted in ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus until January 2022. The reported hazard ratios or odds ratios in the primary studies were regarded as risk ratios (RRs). The overall effect was calculated using a random-effects model that accounts for between-study variability.…
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prospective association between baseline and 9 year change in alcohol consumption and long-term risk of diabetes and whether these associations might be modified by sex and/or BMI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 12,042 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants without prevalent diabetes (55% women, 78% white, mean age 54 years). Alcohol consumption was assessed at visit 1 (1987-1989) and visit 4 (1996-1998). We used Cox models to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes risk by baseline drinking categories and change in alcohol consumption, stratified by sex and obesity status. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21 years, there were 3795 incident cases of diabetes. Among women, consuming 8-14…
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