13 October 2020 In Phenolic compounds
BACKGROUND: Effects of resveratrol on metabolic health have been studied in several short-term human clinical trials, with conflicting results. Next to dose, the duration of the clinical trials may explain the lack of effect in some studies, but long-term studies are still limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-mo resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health outcome parameters. METHODS: Forty-one overweight men and women (BMI: 27-35 kg/m2; aged 40-70 y) completed the study. In this parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial, participants were randomized to receive either 150 mg/d of resveratrol (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 6 mo. The primary outcome of the study was insulin sensitivity, using the Matsuda index. Secondary outcome measures were intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, body composition, resting energy metabolism, blood pressure, plasma markers, physical performance, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Postintervention differences between the resveratrol and placebo arms were evaluated by ANCOVA adjusting for corresponding preintervention variables. RESULTS: Preintervention, no differences were observed between the 2 treatment arms. Insulin sensitivity was not affected after 6 mo of resveratrol treatment (adjusted mean Matsuda index: 5.18 +/- 0.35 in the resveratrol arm compared with 5.50 +/- 0.34 in the placebo arm), although there was a significant difference in postintervention glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between the arms (P = 0.007). The adjusted means showed that postintervention HbA1c was lower on resveratrol (35.8 +/- 0.43 mmol/mol) compared with placebo (37.6 +/- 0.44 mmol/mol). No postintervention differences were found in IHL, body composition, blood pressure, energy metabolism, physical performance, or quality of life and sleep between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: After 6 mo of resveratrol supplementation, insulin sensitivity was unaffected in the resveratrol arm compared with the placebo arm. Nonetheless, HbA1c was lower in overweight men and women in the resveratrol arm. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02565979.
25 August 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is widely assumed to contribute to excess body fatness, especially among young men; however, the evidence is inconsistent. We have addressed this research question by investigating associations between reported alcohol consumption and body composition from large representative national surveys in a high alcohol-consuming country with a high obesity prevalence.

METHODS: The present study comprised a secondary analysis of combined cross-sectional nationally representative Scottish Health Surveys (1995-2010). Reported alcohol-drinking frequency was divided into five groups: from 'nonfrequent drinking' (reference) to daily/'almost every day' among 35 837 representative adults [mean (SD) age: 42.7 (12.7) years (range 18-64 years)]. Quantitative alcohol consumption was categorised into seven groups: from '1-7 to >/=50 10 g units per week'. Regression models against measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were adjusted for age, physical activity, income, smoking, deprivation category and economic status.

RESULTS: Among alcohol-consuming men, heavier drinking (21-28 units per week) was associated with a higher BMI by +1.4 kg m(-2) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-1.43] and higher WC by +3.4 cm (95% CI = 3.2-3.6) than drinking 1-7 units per week. However, those who reported daily drinking frequency were associated with a lower BMI by -2.45 kg m(-2) (95% CI = -2.4 to -2.5) and lower WC by -3.7 cm (95% CI = -3.3 to -4.0) than those who reported less-frequent drinking. Similar associations were found for women. Most of these associations were restricted to subjects aged >30 years. Unexplained variances in BMI and WC are large.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative alcohol consumption and frequency of consumption were positively and inversely associated, respectively, with both BMI and WC among alcohol-consuming adults. Surveys are needed that evaluate both the quantity and frequency of consumption. The lowest BMI and WC were associated with a 'Mediterranean' drinking style (i.e. relatively little, but more frequently)

25 August 2020 In General Health

Understanding the associations between types of alcoholic drinks and adiposity has public health relevance, considering that adult overweight and obesity prevalence are increasing worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the association between overall alcohol consumption and types of alcohol drinks with markers of adiposity from the UK Biobank baseline data (n = 280,183, 48.3% female). G

eneralized linear models were used to examine the associations between alcohol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Those drinking within the public health guidelines had a lower BMI by 1.34 kg/m(2) (95% CI 1.42, 1.26 kg/m(2)) compared to never drinkers. Association between alcohol consumption and body fat percentage were not statistically significant. Compared to those who never drink wines (red wine, champagne and fortified wine), drinkers of these alcoholic beverages had lower BMI (difference of -0.75 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.78, -0.72 kg/m(2); -0.48 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.52, -0.45 kg/m(2); and -0.24 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.29, -0.18 kg/m(2), respectively).

Beer and spirits drinkers had higher BMI compared to never drinkers of beer and spirits (difference of 0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.14, 0.22 kg/m(2) and 0.64 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.61, 0.68 kg/m(2), respectively). Our data did not find a link between alcohol drinking and higher risk of obesity.

25 August 2020 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is widely assumed to contribute to excess body fatness, especially among young men; however, the evidence is inconsistent. We have addressed this research question by investigating associations between reported alcohol consumption and body composition from large representative national surveys in a high alcohol-consuming country with a high obesity prevalence.

METHODS: The present study comprised a secondary analysis of combined cross-sectional nationally representative Scottish Health Surveys (1995-2010). Reported alcohol-drinking frequency was divided into five groups: from 'nonfrequent drinking' (reference) to daily/'almost every day' among 35 837 representative adults [mean (SD) age: 42.7 (12.7) years (range 18-64 years)]. Quantitative alcohol consumption was categorised into seven groups: from '1-7 to >/=50 10 g units per week'. Regression models against measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were adjusted for age, physical activity, income, smoking, deprivation category and economic status.

RESULTS: Among alcohol-consuming men, heavier drinking (21-28 units per week) was associated with a higher BMI by +1.4 kg m(-2) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-1.43] and higher WC by +3.4 cm (95% CI = 3.2-3.6) than drinking 1-7 units per week. However, those who reported daily drinking frequency were associated with a lower BMI by -2.45 kg m(-2) (95% CI = -2.4 to -2.5) and lower WC by -3.7 cm (95% CI = -3.3 to -4.0) than those who reported less-frequent drinking. Similar associations were found for women. Most of these associations were restricted to subjects aged >30 years. Unexplained variances in BMI and WC are large.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative alcohol consumption and frequency of consumption were positively and inversely associated, respectively, with both BMI and WC among alcohol-consuming adults. Surveys are needed that evaluate both the quantity and frequency of consumption. The lowest BMI and WC were associated with a 'Mediterranean' drinking style (i.e. relatively little, but more frequently)

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