To better understand the association of alcohol intake with cognitively healthy longevity (CHL), we explored the association between amount and frequency of alcohol intake and CHL among 1,344 older community-dwelling adults. Alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaire in 1984-1987. Cognitive function was assessed in approximate four-year intervals between 1988 and 2009. Multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for multiple lifestyle and health factors, was used to examine the association between alcohol consumption and CHL (living to age 85 without cognitive impairment), survival to age 85 with cognitive impairment (MMSE score >1.5 standard deviations below expectation for age, sex, and education), or death before age 85. Most participants (88%) reported some current alcohol intake; 49% reported a moderate amount of alcohol intake, and 48% reported drinking near-daily. Relative to nondrinkers, moderate and heavy drinkers (up to 3 drinks/day for women and for men 65 years and older, up to 4 drinks/day for men under 65 years) had significantly higher adjusted odds of survival to age 85 without cognitive impairment (p's < 0.05). Near-daily drinkers had 2-3 fold higher adjusted odds of CHL versus living to at least age 85 with cognitive impairment (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 3.49) or death before 85 (OR = 3.24; 95% CI: 1.92, 5.46). Although excessive drinking has negative health consequences, these results suggest that regular, moderate drinking may play a role in cognitively healthy longevity.

Published in General Health

BACKGROUND: Whether cigarette smoking and moderate drinking are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)has not been fully described. This study investigated the separate and joint effects of smoking and moderate drinking on Chinese men with NAFLD.

METHODS: Across-sectional assay from DFTJ Cohort study was performed with a size of 9432 elderly Chinese men excluding excessive alcohol consumption (<210g/week). Fatty liver was diagnosed by standardized ultrasonographic inspection. The odds ratio (OR) of alcohol consumption and smoking for the prevalence of NAFLD were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with multiple adjustments.

RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD in current smokers (pack-year>/=40) and drinkers (80~210g/week or drinking duration>/=35years) was significantly higher than that in non-smokers and non-drinkers, respectively. The combination of current smoking (pack-year>/=40) and drinking (80~210g/week) was associated with the highest risk of NAFLD (OR 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.68;P<0.01). The similar combined effect was found in participants with pack-year>/=40 and drinking duration>/=35 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.34;P<0.01). Moreover, an interaction was observed between current smoking and moderate drinking in NAFLD.

CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese men, cigarette smoking and moderate alcohol consumption exerts an evident joint effect and interaction on the prevalence of NAFLD, although both are significantly and independently associated with NAFLD prevalence. Such findings highlight particular significance of avoidance of cigarette and alcohol on NAFLD prevention.

Published in Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have found that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence. Nevertheless, whether the drinking pattern is associated with CHD incidence still remains inconclusive.

METHODS: We included 8,469 Chinese men aged 45-81 years, who were free of CHD, stroke, or cancer at baseline from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption and other covariates. Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to estimate the multivariable-adjusted hazard rations (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

RESULTS: During an average of 4.36 years of follow-up, we identified 959 incident CHD events. Compared with non-drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of CHD incidence was 0.84 (0.71-0.98) in current drinkers. With respect to drinking pattern, men who consumed 20.01-40 grams ethanol once a time had a 24% lower risk of incident CHD (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.94) compared with non-drinkers. The adjusted HRs (95% CI) of CHD incidence were 0.80 (0.65, 0.99), 1.02 (0.84, 1.22), and 0.75 (0.59-0.96) in subjects who consumed 0.01-10, 10.01-30, and > 30 grams ethanol per day, respectively. Participants who consumed 20.01-40 grams ethanol per time with less than 5 times per week had the lowest risk of CHD incidence (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.96). No significant associations were observed between type or frequency of alcohol consumption and CHD incidence.

CONCLUSIONS: Drinking was associated with a lower risk of CHD incidence in middle-aged and older Chinese men and moderate quantity of ethanol amounts once a time with lower frequency could been considered as a healthy drinking pattern, which might modify the relationship between alcohol consumption and incident CHD.

Published in Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have found that moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of functional limitations in older adults. However, no previous investigation has assessed this association in older adults from Mediterranean countries, who show characteristic drinking patterns.

METHODS: Data were taken from the UAM and the Seniors-ENRICA cohorts in Spain, comprising community-dwelling people aged >/=60 years. At baseline, participants in both cohorts were classified as non-drinkers, ex-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers (the threshold between moderate and heavy intake was >/=40 g/day in men and >/=24 g/day in women). The Seniors-ENRICA cohort allowed assessment of a Mediterranean Drinking Pattern (MDP), defined as moderate alcohol intake, with wine preference (>/=80% of alcohol consumed as wine) and drinking only with meals. The incidence of limitation in mobility, agility, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was ascertained in each cohort at the end of a 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, education, lifestyle, BMI, chronic conditions, and functional limitations at baseline others than the studied limitation.

RESULTS: Compared with non-drinkers, ex-drinkers showed a higher risk of IADL limitation (pooled adjusted odds ratio [paOR]: 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.21). By contrast, moderate drinkers had a lower risk of limitations in mobility (paOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.63-0.97), agility (paOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99) and IADL (paOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.39-0.69). Among individuals reporting poor or fair health, the MDP was associated with lower risk of mobility limitation (aOR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27-0.97).

CONCLUSION: In older adults, moderate alcohol consumption, as well as the MDP in specific subgroups, is associated with lower risk of functional limitation. These results should not serve to promote alcohol intake, because older adults are particularly vulnerable to its harmful effects.

Published in General Health
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