23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Dietary habits are a determining factor of the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In the aim to find a possible preventive and intervention strategy, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed as an effective approach.

Within the MedDiet, moderate wine consumption with meals is a positive item in the MedDiet score; however, recent studies have reported a dose-response association between alcohol consumption and higher risk of a large number of NCDs. This review aimed to evaluate the association between NCDs and wine consumption in the framework of the MedDiet, with a simple review of 22 studies of the highest-level literature published over the last five years. We found that the information regarding the effects of wine in different health outcomes has not varied widely over the past five years, finding inconclusive results among the studies evaluated.

Most of the literature agrees that light to moderate wine intake seems to have beneficial effects to some extent in NCDs, such as hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia and dementia, but no definitive recommendations can be made on a specific dose intake that can benefit most diseases.

23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with favorable cardiovascular health (CVH). However, the association between alcohol type and ideal CVH has not been well-established. We examined the relationship between alcohol type and ideal CVH as measured by the American Heart Association's seven CVH metrics.

METHODS: We analyzed data from 6,389 men and women aged 45-84 years from a multi-ethnic cohort free of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol type (wine, beer and liquor) was categorized as never, former, 0 but drink other alcohol types, >0 but 2 drinks/day. A CVH score ranging from 0 to 14 points was created from the seven CVH metrics (Inadequate score, 0-8; average, 9-10; optimal, 11-14). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol type and CVH, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, field site and total calorie intake.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 (10) years and 53 % were women. Participants who consumed 1-2 drinks/day of wine had higher odds of optimal CVH scores compared to those who never drank wine [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.64 (1.12-2.40)]. In comparison to participants who never drank beer, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of beer had lower odds of optimal CVH scores [0.31 (0.14-0.69)]. Additionally, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of liquor had lower odds of optimal scores compared to those who never drank liquor [0.32 (0.16-0.65)].

CONCLUSION: Moderate consumption of wine was associated with favorable CVH. However, heavy consumption of beer or liquor was associated with poorer CVH.

13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Existing data have described benefits and drawbacks of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but no research has evaluated its association with the cardiovascular health (CVH) score proposed by the American Heart Association. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis on the Kardiovize cohort (Brno, Czech Republic), to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and CVH. We included 1773 subjects (aged 25-64 years; 44.2% men) with no history of CVD. We compared CVD risk factors, CVH metrics (i.e., BMI, healthy diet, physical activity level, smoking status, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol) and CVH score between and within several drinking categories. We found that the relationship between drinking habits and CVH was related to the amount of alcohol consumed, drinking patterns, and beverage choices. Heavy drinkers were more likely to smoke tobacco, and to report diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol at higher level than non-drinkers. Among drinkers, however, people who exclusively drank wine exhibited better CVH than those who exclusively drank beer. Although our findings supported the hypothesis that drinking alcohol was related to the CVH in general, further prospective research is needed to understand whether the assessment of CVH should incorporate information on alcohol consumption.
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Reductions in World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels have recently been shown to lower the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, but prior work has not examined reductions in WHO risk drinking levels in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States and of global mortality. This study examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking levels and subsequent risk for CVD. METHODS: In a US national survey, 1,058 very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers participated in Wave 1 interviews (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 follow-ups (2004 to 2005). Self-reported CVD history that was communicated to the participant by a doctor or other healthcare professionals included arteriosclerosis, hypertension, angina, tachycardia, or myocardial infarction. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) evaluating relationships between >/=2-level reductions in WHO risk drinking levels from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the risk of Wave 2 CVD, controlling for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD in individuals who at Wave 1 were very-high-risk (aOR = 0.58 [0.41 to 0.80]) or high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.81 [0.70 to 0.94]). Interaction terms showed that this relationship varied by age. Among individuals >40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among very-high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.42 [0.28 to 0.63]) but not high-risk drinkers (p = 0.50). Among individuals =40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.50 [0.37 to 0.69]) but not very-high-risk drinkers (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that reductions in WHO risk drinking levels are associated with reduced CVD risk among very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers in the US general population, and provide further evidence that reducing high levels of drinking provides important benefit across multiple clinical domains.
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