23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine's biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine extracts on those mechanisms.

Ten wine varieties and two different extraction methods were used leading to five extracts for each wine: total lipids (TL) and fractions with different phenolic compound classes (FI, FII, FIII and FIV). Their effect on oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and the secretion of cytokines from mononuclear cells was measured and a biological score was calculated. FII of white wines is the most potent extract and the extracts FIII and TL are following. Specifically, FII had higher anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory score while all three fractions had a similar anti-platelet score.

Furthermore, FII and FIII extracts were the most potent red wine extracts and revealed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory scores. White wine FII extracts were more potent than the red wine ones while FI and FIV extracts of red wine were more potent than the white wine ones.

In conclusion, the protective effect of a wine is independent of its color but is strongly associated with its microconstituents profile. FII extract revealed the highest biological score and further examination is needed in order to identify the compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned actions.

23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with a nonalcoholic red wine extract (RWE), including resveratrol and polyphenols, on insulin sensitivity and Sirt1 expression in nondiabetic humans. The present study was a single-arm, open-label and prospective study.

Twelve subjects received supplementation with RWE, including 19.2 mg resveratrol and 136 mg polyphenols, daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, metabolic parameters, including glucose/lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers, were evaluated. mRNA expression of Sirt1 was evaluated in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Additionally, Sirt1 and phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression were evaluated in cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Supplementation with RWE for 8 weeks decreased the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which indicates an increase in insulin sensitivity. Serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly decreased by RWE supplementation for 8 weeks. Additionally, Sirt1 mRNA expression in isolated PBMNCs was significantly increased after 8 weeks of RWE supplementation.

Moreover, the rate of increase in Sirt1 expression was positively correlated with the rate of change in HOMA-IR. The administration of RWE increased Sirt1 and p-AMPK expression in cultured THP-1 cells. Supplementation with RWE improved metabolism, such as insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation, in humans. Additionally, RWE supplementation induced an increase in Sirt1 expression in PBMNCs, which may be associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Dietary habits are a determining factor of the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In the aim to find a possible preventive and intervention strategy, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed as an effective approach.

Within the MedDiet, moderate wine consumption with meals is a positive item in the MedDiet score; however, recent studies have reported a dose-response association between alcohol consumption and higher risk of a large number of NCDs. This review aimed to evaluate the association between NCDs and wine consumption in the framework of the MedDiet, with a simple review of 22 studies of the highest-level literature published over the last five years. We found that the information regarding the effects of wine in different health outcomes has not varied widely over the past five years, finding inconclusive results among the studies evaluated.

Most of the literature agrees that light to moderate wine intake seems to have beneficial effects to some extent in NCDs, such as hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia and dementia, but no definitive recommendations can be made on a specific dose intake that can benefit most diseases.

23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Due to medical advances and lifestyle changes, population life expectancy has increased. For this reason, it is important to achieve healthy aging by reducing the risk factors causing damage and pathologies associated with age. Through nutrition, one of the pillars of health, we are able to modify these factors through modulation of the intestinal microbiota.

The Mediterranean and Oriental diets are proof of this, as well as the components present in them, such as fiber and polyphenols. These generate beneficial effects on the body thanks, in part, to their interaction with intestinal bacteria. Likewise, the low consumption of products with high fat content favors the state of the microbiota, contributing to the maintenance of good health.

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