23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine's biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine extracts on those mechanisms.

Ten wine varieties and two different extraction methods were used leading to five extracts for each wine: total lipids (TL) and fractions with different phenolic compound classes (FI, FII, FIII and FIV). Their effect on oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and the secretion of cytokines from mononuclear cells was measured and a biological score was calculated. FII of white wines is the most potent extract and the extracts FIII and TL are following. Specifically, FII had higher anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory score while all three fractions had a similar anti-platelet score.

Furthermore, FII and FIII extracts were the most potent red wine extracts and revealed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory scores. White wine FII extracts were more potent than the red wine ones while FI and FIV extracts of red wine were more potent than the white wine ones.

In conclusion, the protective effect of a wine is independent of its color but is strongly associated with its microconstituents profile. FII extract revealed the highest biological score and further examination is needed in order to identify the compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned actions.

23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

Although, three decades have pasted from the introduction of "French Paradox", is still an issue for debate. Epidemiology supports the J-shaped relationship between wine consumption and vascular events as well as cardiovascular mortality with a maximum protection at 21 g of alcohol consumption in the form of wine per day.

Nevertheless, the aforementioned studies have used an observational design that raises concerns about potential confounding. Randomized clinical studies may provide data to end the controversy and in parallel with in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanisms by which wine affects cardiovascular disease.

In this concept, this review aims to address the presence of bioactive wine micro constituents, their potential mechanisms of action and also to summarize the cardio-protective effects of wine intake based on clinical trials. The role of wine micro-constituents in inflammation and haemostasis is discussed in detail.

13 October 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Although, three decades have pasted from the introduction of "French Paradox", is still an issue for debate. Epidemiology supports the J-shaped relationship between wine consumption and vascular events as well as cardiovascular mortality with a maximum protection at 21 g of alcohol consumption in the form of wine per day. Nevertheless, the aforementioned studies have used an observational design that raises concerns about potential confounding. Randomized clinical studies may provide data to end the controversy and in parallel with in vitro experiments to elucidate the mechanisms by which wine affects cardiovascular disease. In this concept, this review aims to address the presence of bioactive wine micro constituents, their potential mechanisms of action and also to summarize the cardio-protective effects of wine intake based on clinical trials. The role of wine micro-constituents in inflammation and haemostasis is discussed in detail.
24 February 2016 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review all the prospective cohort studies that have analysed the relation between adherence to a Mediterranean diet, mortality, and incidence of chronic diseases in a primary prevention setting. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

DATA SOURCES: English and non-English publications in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to 30 June 2008. Studies reviewed Studies that analysed prospectively the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet, mortality, and incidence of diseases; 12 studies, with a total of 1 574,299 subjects followed for a time ranging from three to 18 years were included.

RESULTS: The cumulative analysis among eight cohorts (514,816 subjects and 33,576 deaths) evaluating overall mortality in relation to adherence to a Mediterranean diet showed that a two point increase in the adherence score was significantly associated with a reduced risk of mortality (pooled relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.94). Likewise, the analyses showed a beneficial role for greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular mortality (pooled relative risk 0.91, 0.87 to 0.95), incidence of or mortality from cancer (0.94, 0.92 to 0.96), and incidence of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (0.87, 0.80 to 0.96).

CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant improvement in health status, as seen by a significant reduction in overall mortality (9%), mortality from cardiovascular diseases (9%), incidence of or mortality from cancer (6%), and incidence of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (13%). These results seem to be clinically relevant for public health, in particular for encouraging a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern for primary prevention of major chronic diseases.

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