23 February 2021 In Liver Disease
OBJECTIVE: To study the interaction of alcohol consumption with body mass index (BMI) in the development of hepatic steatosis and mortality. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 18,506 participants without fatty liver disease or cirrhosis at enrollment in the Mayo Clinic Biobank from April 9, 2009, through March 31, 2016. Participants were classified by self-reported alcohol consumption status (nondrinkers, moderate drinkers [0 to 2 drinks per day], and heavy drinkers [>2 drinks per day]). The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of hepatic steatosis, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code and confirmed with imaging. The secondary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis determined the impact of alcohol consumption stratified by BMI on outcomes compared with nondrinkers. RESULTS: The cohort (mean +/- SD age, 55.8+/-16.9 years; 63.8% female; mean +/- SD BMI, 28.8+/-6.1 kg/m(2)) of 18,506 participants included 3657 (19.8%) nondrinkers, 14,236 (76.9%) moderate drinkers, and 613 (3.3%) heavy drinkers at enrollment. After a median follow-up of 5.8 years (interquartile range, 3.8 to 7.2 years), 684 participants had development of hepatic steatosis and 968 died. In moderate drinkers, the risk of hepatic steatosis development was high in the obese group (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.67), insignificant in the overweight group (AHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.26), and decreased in the normal-BMI group (AHR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.90). Heavy drinkers had an increased risk of hepatic steatosis irrespective of BMI. Moderate alcohol use was associated with decreased mortality in the normal-weight (AHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.58) and overweight (AHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.88) groups but not in the obese group (AHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.00). CONCLUSION: In obese individuals, even moderate alcohol use is associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower mortality in normal-BMI and overweight individuals but not in those who are obese.
16 February 2021 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with favorable cardiovascular health (CVH). However, the association between alcohol type and ideal CVH has not been well-established. We examined the relationship between alcohol type and ideal CVH as measured by the American Heart Association's seven CVH metrics. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6,389 men and women aged 45-84 years from a multi-ethnic cohort free of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol type (wine, beer and liquor) was categorized as never, former, 0 but drink other alcohol types, >0 but 2 drinks/day. A CVH score ranging from 0 to 14 points was created from the seven CVH metrics (Inadequate score, 0-8; average, 9-10; optimal, 11-14). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol type and CVH, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, field site and total calorie intake. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 (10) years and 53 % were women. Participants who consumed 1-2 drinks/day of wine had higher odds of optimal CVH scores compared to those who never drank wine [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.64 (1.12-2.40)]. In comparison to participants who never drank beer, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of beer had lower odds of optimal CVH scores [0.31 (0.14-0.69)]. Additionally, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of liquor had lower odds of optimal scores compared to those who never drank liquor [0.32 (0.16-0.65)]. CONCLUSION: Moderate consumption of wine was associated with favorable CVH. However, heavy consumption of beer or liquor was associated with poorer CVH.
23 November 2020 In Diabetes

Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals.

The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events.

The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.

23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with favorable cardiovascular health (CVH). However, the association between alcohol type and ideal CVH has not been well-established. We examined the relationship between alcohol type and ideal CVH as measured by the American Heart Association's seven CVH metrics.

METHODS: We analyzed data from 6,389 men and women aged 45-84 years from a multi-ethnic cohort free of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol type (wine, beer and liquor) was categorized as never, former, 0 but drink other alcohol types, >0 but 2 drinks/day. A CVH score ranging from 0 to 14 points was created from the seven CVH metrics (Inadequate score, 0-8; average, 9-10; optimal, 11-14). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol type and CVH, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, field site and total calorie intake.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of participants was 62 (10) years and 53 % were women. Participants who consumed 1-2 drinks/day of wine had higher odds of optimal CVH scores compared to those who never drank wine [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.64 (1.12-2.40)]. In comparison to participants who never drank beer, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of beer had lower odds of optimal CVH scores [0.31 (0.14-0.69)]. Additionally, those who consumed >2 drinks/day of liquor had lower odds of optimal scores compared to those who never drank liquor [0.32 (0.16-0.65)].

CONCLUSION: Moderate consumption of wine was associated with favorable CVH. However, heavy consumption of beer or liquor was associated with poorer CVH.

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