23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine's biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine extracts on those mechanisms.

Ten wine varieties and two different extraction methods were used leading to five extracts for each wine: total lipids (TL) and fractions with different phenolic compound classes (FI, FII, FIII and FIV). Their effect on oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and the secretion of cytokines from mononuclear cells was measured and a biological score was calculated. FII of white wines is the most potent extract and the extracts FIII and TL are following. Specifically, FII had higher anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory score while all three fractions had a similar anti-platelet score.

Furthermore, FII and FIII extracts were the most potent red wine extracts and revealed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory scores. White wine FII extracts were more potent than the red wine ones while FI and FIV extracts of red wine were more potent than the white wine ones.

In conclusion, the protective effect of a wine is independent of its color but is strongly associated with its microconstituents profile. FII extract revealed the highest biological score and further examination is needed in order to identify the compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned actions.

25 January 2019 In General Health

Alcoholic beverages, specifically wine, have been consumed for many years. Wine is postulated to play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Most epidemiological studies have found sustained consumption at light-to-moderate amounts to increase HDL cholesterol, reduce platelet aggregation, and promote fibrinolysis. Wine consumption has been inversely associated with ischemic heart disease, and the alcohol-blood pressure association, in most studies, follows a J-shaped curve. These outcomes have been attributed to the molecular constituents of wine, namely ethanol and polyphenols. Due to the continued interest in wine as a biological beverage, we review the chemistry of wine as clinicians, including its chemical composition, viticulture and enological practices, and other chemical factors that influence the bioactive components of wine. We also outline the biological effects of wine components and directions for future research.

04 December 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with labour and traffic accidents. However, current evidence suggests beneficial effects of moderate drinking on cardiovascular events including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and congestive heart failure. The underlying mechanisms to explain these protective effects against coronary heart disease include an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in insulin sensitivity, and a decrease in platelet aggregation and circulating concentrations of fibrinogen. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages on the cardiovascular system, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcohol component (ethanol) or non-alcoholic products containing, mainly polyphenols. Recent randomised clinical trials have shown that wine, a polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverage, provides higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than some spirits such as gin, a polyphenol-free alcoholic beverage. In addition, dealcoholized red wine decreases blood pressure through a nitric oxide mediated mechanism, suggesting a protective effect of polyphenols on vascular function. Other studies performed in women have observed that daily doses of 15-20 g of alcohol as red wine are sufficient to elicit protective effects similar to those observed in men who consumed higher doses of wine. In conclusion, moderate consumption of wine exerts a protective effect on biomarkers related to the progression and development of atherosclerosis due to its alcoholic (ethanol) and non-alcoholic (polyphenols) content. Women are more sensitive to the beneficial effects of wine.

06 May 2014 In Phenolic compounds

We review evidence for and against the 'red wine hypothesis', whereby red wine is more likely to confer cardiovascular benefits than white. As background, there is a strong epidemiological and mechanistic evidence for J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and total mortality. However, epidemiological data favouring a specific benefit of red over white wine are not strong and the 'French paradox' could at least in part be explained by confounding factors. More convincing evidence is that human studies with de-alcoholized red but not white wine show short-term cardiovascular benefits. The specific components of the de-alcoholized wine that are active on cardiovascular endpoints, are the polyphenols found in red wine, especially resveratrol. The effects of resveratrol on isolated tissues or organs are well-described including molecular mechanisms leading to decreased arterial damage, decreased activity of angiotensin-II, increased nitric oxide, and decreased platelet aggregation. Anti-ischaemic effects include stimulation of prosurvival paths, decreased LDL-oxidation, atheroma, and on the ischaemic-beneficial metabolic changes. Most recently, the agonist effect of resveratrol on the anti-senescence factor sirtuin has lessened cell death in myocytes from failing hearts. Mechanistic feasibility strengthens the case for prospective therapeutic trials of alcohol vs. red wine vs. resveratrol, for example in those with heart failure.

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