13 October 2020 In Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, with a prevalence of 25-30%. Since its first description in 1980, NAFLD has been conceived as a different entity from alcohol-related fatty liver disease (ALD), despite that, both diseases have an overlap in the pathophysiology, share genetic-epigenetic factors, and frequently coexist. Both entities are characterized by a broad spectrum of histological features ranging from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Distinction between NAFLD and ALD is based on the amount of consumed alcohol, which has been arbitrarily established. In this context, a proposal of positive criteria for NAFLD diagnosis not considering exclusion of alcohol consumption as a prerequisite criterion for diagnosis had emerged, recognizing the possibility of a dual etiology of fatty liver in some individuals. The impact of moderate alcohol use on the severity of NAFLD is ill-defined. Some studies suggest protective effects in moderate doses, but current evidence shows that there is no safe threshold for alcohol consumption for NAFLD. In fact, given the synergistic effect between alcohol consumption, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction, it is likely that alcohol use serves as a significant risk factor for the progression of liver disease in NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. This also affects the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we summarize the overlapping pathophysiology of NAFLD and ALD, the current data on alcohol consumption in patients with NAFLD, and the effects of metabolic dysfunction and overweight in ALD.
24 January 2020 In Liver Disease

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver morbidity. This condition often is accompanied by obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between lifestyle factors and NAFLD in individuals with MetS.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 328 participants (55-75 y of age) diagnosed with MetS participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. NAFLD status was evaluated using the non-invasive hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Sociodemographic, clinical, and dietary data were collected. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mainly assessed by the consumption of olive oil, nuts, legumes, whole grain foods, fish, vegetables, fruits, and red wine) and physical activity were assessed using validated questionnaires.

RESULTS: Linear regression analyses revealed that HSI values tended to be lower with increasing physical activity tertiles (T2, beta = -1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.73 to -0.20; T3, beta = -1.93; 95% CI, -3.22 to -0.65 versus T1, Ptrend = 0.001) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with HSI values: (moderate adherence beta = -0.70; 95% CI, -1.92 to 0.53; high adherence beta = -1.57; 95% CI, -3.01 to -0.13 versus lower, Ptrend = 0.041). Higher tertiles of legume consumption were inversely associated with the highest tertile of HSI (T2, relative risk ratio [RRR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92; P = 0.028; T3, RRR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.97; P = 0.041 versus T1).

CONCLUSION: Physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and consumption of legumes were inversely associated with a non-invasive marker of NAFLD in individuals with MetS. This data can be useful in implementing precision strategies aimed at the prevention, monitoring, and management of NAFLD.

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