23 November 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The alcohol-hypertension relation has been well documented, but whether women have protective effect or race and type of beverage consumed affect the association remain unclear. To quantify the relation between total or beverage-specific alcohol consumption and incident hypertension by considering the effect of sex and race.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Articles were identified in PubMed and Embase databases with no restriction on publication date. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by random effects models. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association. This study involved 22 articles (31 studies) and included 414,477 participants. The hypertension risk was different among liquor, wine, and beer at 5.1-10 g/d of ethanol consumption (P-across subgroups = 0.002). The hypertension risk differed between men (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20) and women (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) at 10 g/d (P-across subgroups = 0.005). We found a linear alcohol-hypertension association among white (P-linearity = 0.017), black people (P-linearity = 0.035), and Asians (P-linearity<0.001). With 10 g/d increment of consumption, the RRs for hypertension were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.28), and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.10) for Asians, black, and white people, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Sex modifies the alcohol-hypertension association at low level of alcohol consumption and we did not find evidence of a protective effect of alcohol consumption among women. Black people may have higher hypertension risk than Asians and white people at the same ethanol consumption.

23 November 2020 In Cancer

Alcohol is widely consumed and is known as a major risk factor for several types of cancers. Yet, it is unclear whether alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) or not. We conducted linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses of cohort studies on alcohol consumption and PCa risk by types of alcohol (total, wine, beer, and liquor) and PCa (non-aggressive and aggressive). Pubmed and Embase were searched through April 2020 to identify relevant studies.

Summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a random-effects model. For non-aggressive PCa, by alcohol type, the risk increased linearly with liquor (RR per 14 g/day intake (alcohol content in standard drink) being 1.04 (95% CI = 1.02-1.06, I(2) = 0%, three studies) and non-linearly with beer (Pnon-linearity = 0.045, four studies), with increased risk observed in the lower range (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05; 14 g/day), with 1.05 (95% CI = 1.01-1.08) at 28 g/day. Wine was not significantly associated with the risk of non-aggressive PCa. For aggressive PCa, a non-linear relationship of diverse shapes was indicated for all types of alcohol in the sensitivity analysis.

Compared to non-drinking, a significant positive association was more apparent at lower dose for liquor (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.20 at 14 g/day; RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.31 at 28 g/day; Pnon-linearity = 0.005, three studies) but at higher doses for wine (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16 at 28 g/day, RR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08-1.67 at 56 g/day; Pnon-linearity = 0.01, four studies). In contrast, decreased risks were indicated at lower doses of beer (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79-0.92 at 14 g/day; RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.90 at 28 g/day, Pnon-linearity < 0.001, four studies).

Total alcohol consumption was not associated with both types of PCa. In this study, we found heterogeneous associations between alcohol intake and PCa by types of alcohol and PCa.

23 November 2020 In Cancer

PURPOSE: The aim of current systematic review was to update the body of evidence on associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and risk of cancer mortality, site-specific cancer in the general population; all-cause, and cancer mortality as well as cancer reoccurrence among cancer survivors.

METHODS: A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case-control and cohort studies published up to April 2020 was performed using PubMed and Scopus. Study-specific risk estimates for the highest versus lowest adherence to the MedDiet category were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Certainty of evidence from cohort studies and RCTs was evaluated using the NutriGrade scoring system.

RESULTS: The updated search revealed 44 studies not identified in the previous review. Altogether, 117 studies including 3,202,496 participants were enclosed for meta-analysis. The highest adherence to MedDiet was inversely associated with cancer mortality (RRcohort: 0.87, 95% CI 0.82, 0.92; N = 18 studies), all-cause mortality among cancer survivors (RRcohort: 0.75, 95% CI 0.66, 0.86; N = 8), breast (RRobservational: 0.94, 95% CI 0.90, 0.97; N = 23), colorectal (RRobservational: 0.83, 95% CI 0.76, 0.90; N = 17), head and neck (RRobservational: 0.56, 95% CI 0.44, 0.72; N = 9), respiratory (RRcohort: 0.84, 95% CI 0.76, 0.94; N = 5), gastric (RRobservational: 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.80; N = 7), bladder (RRobservational: 0.87, 95% CI 0.76, 0.98; N = 4), and liver cancer (RRobservational: 0.64, 95% CI 0.54, 0.75; N = 4). Adhering to MedDiet did not modify risk of blood, esophageal, pancreatic and prostate cancer risk.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results suggest that highest adherence to the MedDiet was related to lower risk of cancer mortality in the general population, and all-cause mortality among cancer survivors as well as colorectal, head and neck, respiratory, gastric, liver and bladder cancer risks. Moderate certainty of evidence from cohort studies suggest an inverse association for cancer mortality and colorectal cancer, but most of the comparisons were rated as low or very low certainty of evidence.

25 August 2020 In General Health

The beneficial association of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with longevity has been consistently demonstrated, but the associations of MedDiet components have not been accordingly evaluated. We performed an updated meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies published up to 31 December 2017, to quantify the association of adherence to MedDiet, expressed as an index/score (MDS) and of its components with all-cause mortality.

We estimated summary relative risks (SRR) and 95 % CI using random effects models. On the basis of thirty studies (225 600 deaths), SRR for the study-specific highest/lowest and per 1sd MDS increment were 0.79 (95 % CI 0.77, 0.81, Iota 2=42 %, P-heterogeneity 0.02) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.90, 0.94, Iota 2 56 %, P-heterogeneity <0.01), respectively. Inversely, statistically significant associations were evident in stratified analyses by country, MDS range and publication year, with some evidence for heterogeneity across countries overall (P-heterogeneity 0.011), as well as across European countries (P=0.018).

Regarding MDS components, relatively stronger and statistically significant inverse associations were highlighted for moderate/none-excessive alcohol consumption (0.86, 95 % CI 0.77, 0.97) and for above/below-the-median consumptions of fruit (0.88, 95 % CI 0.83, 0.94) and vegetables (0.94, 95 % CI 0.89, 0.98), whereas a positive association was apparent for above/below-the-median intake of meat (1.07, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.13).

Our meta-analyses confirm the inverse association of MedDiet with mortality and highlight the dietary components that influence mostly this association. Our results are important for better understanding the role of MedDiet in health and proposing dietary changes to effectively increase adherence to this healthy dietary pattern

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