PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study is to examine and summarize studies reporting on the epidemiology, the risk of developing diabetes, and the cardiovascular effects on individuals with diabetes of different levels of alcohol consumption.

RECENT FINDINGS: Men consume more alcohol than women in populations with and without diabetes. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of diabetes in the majority of the studies, whereas heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are at increased risk for diabetes. Among people with diabetes, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption reduces risks of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations with diabetes compared to the general population. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of diabetes and, as in the general population, improves cardiovascular health in patients with diabetes. Type of alcoholic beverage, gender, and body mass index are factors that affect these outcomes.

Published in Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the predictors of alcohol consumption behavior among adolescents and young adults. However, the body of evidence about the relationship between in particular psychological factors and alcohol consumption among individuals in the second half of life is still limited. Hence, we aimed at identifying factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals aged 40 and above, especially focusing on psychological correlates.

METHODS: Data were derived from a population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 to 95 years (n = 7820) in Germany. Alcohol consumption was rated as 'never' (never drinkers), 'rarer than once a month', 'one to three times a month', 'once a week', 'several times a week' (occasional drinkers), and 'daily' (daily drinkers). Socio-economic factors, the illness level and physical activity were considered as possible determinants of alcohol consumption. In addition, positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-regulation were included as psychological factors. Multinomial regressions were used to identify factors associated with drinking behavior.

RESULTS: 12.0% of the individuals were daily drinkers, 76.5% were occasional drinkers, and 11.5% of the individuals never drank alcohol. After adjusting for various potential confounders, multinomial logistic regressions revealed that, compared with never drinking, occasional and daily drinking were positively associated with a decreased loneliness, a higher life satisfaction, a higher positive affect, a higher optimism, a higher self-efficacy (occasional drinkers), a higher self-esteem, and less perceived stress. In addition, occasional and daily drinking were positively associated with less physical illnesses, male gender, and income as compared with never drinking.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study extends the existing literature on alcohol consumption behavior by new insights of correlates of drinking behavior among individuals in the second half of life. Since interventions are available to address this risk factor, this might help to identify individuals with increased alcohol consumption.

Published in Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Whilst high levels of alcohol consumption are known to be associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), it is unclear if any level of alcohol consumption can be recommended to prevent the onset of the condition. The aim of this review is to characterise the association between chronic alcohol intake and incident AF.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Electronic literature searches were undertaken using PubMed and Embase databases up to 1 February 2016 to identify studies examining the impact of alcohol on the risk of incident AF. Prospective studies reporting on at least three levels of alcohol intake and published in English were eligible for inclusion. Studies of a retrospective or case control design were excluded. The primary study outcome was development of incident AF. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of alcohol intake were associated with an increased incident AF risk (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49, p<0.001). Moderate levels of alcohol intake were associated with a heightened AF risk in males (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.54, p=0.02) but not females (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.25, p=0.74). Low alcohol intake, of up to 1 standard drink (SD) per day, was not associated with AF development (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.06, p=0.37).

CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of alcohol intake are not associated with the development of AF. Gender differences exist in the association between moderate alcohol intake and AF with males demonstrating greater increases in risk, whilst high alcohol intake is associated with a heightened AF risk across both genders.

Published in Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the incidence of major cancers may be attributed to differences in the prevalence of established, modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical activity and diet.

METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort of 566,398 adults aged 50-71 years, 19,677 African-American and 450,623 Whites, was analyzed. Baseline data on cancer-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, physical activity and dietary patterns were used to create an individual adherence score. Differences in adherence by race, gender and geographic region were assessed using descriptive statistics, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between adherence and cancer incidence.

RESULTS: Only 1.5% of study participants were adherent to all five cancer-related risk factor guidelines, with marked race-, gender- and regional differences in adherence overall. Compared with participants who were fully adherent to all five cancer risk factor criteria, those adherent to one or less had a 76% increased risk of any cancer incidence (HR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.70 - 1.82), 38% increased risk of breast cancer (HR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.25 - 1.52), and doubled the risk of colorectal cancer (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.84 - 2.29). However, risk of prostate cancer was lower among participants adherent to one or less compared with those who were fully adherent (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.75 - 0.85). The proportion of cancer incident cases attributable to low adherence was higher among African-Americans compared with Whites for all cancers (21% vs. 19%), and highest for colorectal cancer (25%) regardless of race.

CONCLUSION: Racial differences in the proportion of cancer incidence attributable to low adherence suggests unique opportunities for targeted cancer prevention strategies that may help eliminate racial disparities in cancer burden among older US adults.

Published in Cancer
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