26 June 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of pre- or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by alcohol-induced flushing response in Korean male adults, particularly based on their body mass index (BMI).

METHODS: This study selected 1,030 (158 non-drinkers, 364 flushers, and 508 non-flushers) male adults who had medical checkups. A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of pre- or T2DM.

RESULTS: In both the normal-weight group (BMI /=23 kg/m(2) and 4 and 8 drinks: 2.42, 1.11-5.27). However, obese non-flushers had only a significant higher risk of pre- or T2DM when consuming more than 8 drinks of alcohol per week than the non-drinkers (2.72, 1.39-5.30).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that obese flushers have an increased risk of developing pre- or T2DM even with less alcohol consumption.

26 April 2017 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: The association between facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between facial flushing and cancer risk.

METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature. The patients' baseline characteristics and estimated risks were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the risk of facial flushing in cancer, and subgroup analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Ten studies with 89,376 participants from East Asia were included. The pooled OR of facial flushing in all cancers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.91), with the pooled ORs of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.33-2.83) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.12) in men and women, respectively. The pooled ORs were also estimated in different cancer types.

CONCLUSION: Our results showed that facial flushing response to alcohol was associated with higher cancer risk in men in East Asia, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, yet facial flushing was not significantly associated with cancer risk among women.

01 February 2017 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: We examined whether alcohol flushing could be used as an instrumental variable (IV) and investigated the effect of alcohol consumption on coronary calcification using alcohol flushing status as an IV.

METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from 24 681 Korean adults (20 696 men and 3985 women) who had been administered a questionnaire assessing alcohol consumption and alcohol flushing, as well as a coronary artery calcium (CAC) measurement. The associations of alcohol flushing status with potential confounders and alcohol consumption were examined. We employed two-stage predictor substitution methodology for the IV analysis.

RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol flushing did not differ depending on gender, education, household income, cigarette smoking or physical activity. Balanced levels of confounders were observed between alcohol flushers and non-flushers. Alcohol flushing was closely related to alcohol consumption and levels of liver enzymes. In men, a doubling in alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of coronary calcification in both the IV analysis [odds ratio (OR) of CAC scores of 1 or over = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.20) and the multivariable regression analysis (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07). For cardiovascular risk factors, the IV analysis showed a positive association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol flushing can be used as an IV in studies evaluating the health impact of alcohol consumption, especially in East Asian countries. Through such an analysis, we found that increased alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Facial flushing responses to drinking, because of intolerance to alcohol, are observed in some people, especially Asians. This study examined the role of flushing responses in the relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance (IR).

METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional analysis included 624 Korean men (80 nondrinkers, 306 nonflushing drinkers, and 238 flushing drinkers) who were free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Data on the flushing response to drinking and alcohol consumption were collected from medical records. IR was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA(IR) ). On the basis of comparisons with nondrinkers, the risk of IR according to the quantity of alcohol consumed per week was analyzed among nonflushers and flushers.

RESULTS: After adjusting for age, exercise status, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides using a logistic regression model, we found a low risk of IR among nonflushers who consumed 20 drinks per week (OR = 3.5). On the other hand, only a higher risk of IR was associated with flushers who consumed >12 drinks per week (>12 to 20 drinks: OR = 4.7; >20 drinks: OR = 3.5).

CONCLUSIONS: The amount of drinking associated with the development of IR in flushers was lower than in nonflushers. Additionally, no positive effect of moderate drinking on IR was observed in flushers. The findings support acetaldehyde-derived mechanisms in the development of alcohol-related IR.

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