25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are inconsistencies in the effects of low to moderate dose alcohol consumption on the development of hypertension in adult men. We hypothesized that a region-specific effect might participate in this heterogeneity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of alcohol dose on hypertension incidence using contemporary data through December 2017. Subjects were categorized according to their level of alcohol consumption as non-drinkers (reference) and low- (0.01 to 20.0 g/day), moderate- (20.1 to 40.0 g/day), moderate- to high- (40.1 to 60.0 g/day), and high-dose (> 60.0 g/day) drinkers. We defined hypertension as a blood pressure >/= 140/90 mmHg and/or the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. RESULTS: In total, 11 articles (seven Asian and four Western) were selected for our analysis. Among Asian men, a significantly elevated risk was observed even in the low alcohol dose group in comparison with the group with no alcohol consumption, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (pooled relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CI)]: 1.25 [1.13 to 1.38], 1.48 [1.27 to 1.72], 1.75 [1.43 to 2.15], and 1.78 [1.51 to 2.09]). Among Western men, a similar dose-response relationship was noted in general (p for subgroup difference > 0.1), but a significantly elevated risk was evident only in the high-dose group (pooled relative risks [95% CI]: 1.22 [0.85 to 1.74], 1.57 [0.90 to 2.75], 1.47 [0.44 to 4.91], and 1.49 [1.02 to 2.18]). CONCLUSION: Even low doses of alcohol can lead to the development of hypertension, particularly in Asian men. Our findings could serve as additional evidence for developing an appropriate preventive strategy in each region.
16 September 2015 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the relationship between alcohol consumption, health, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation.

PARTICIPANTS: 27 991 people aged 65 and over from an inner-city population, using a primary care database.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures were alcohol use and misuse (>21 units per week for men and >14 for units per week women).

RESULTS: Older people of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin from four distinct ethnic groups comprised 29% of the sample. A total of 9248 older drinkers were identified, of whom 1980 (21.4%) drank above safe limits. Compared with older drinkers, older unsafe drinkers contained a higher proportion of males, white and Irish ethnic groups and a lower proportion of Caribbean, African and Asian groups. For older drinkers, the strongest independent predictors of higher alcohol consumption were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity. Independent predictors of lower alcohol consumption were Asian, black Caribbean and black African ethnicity. Socioeconomic deprivation and comorbidity were not significant predictors of alcohol consumption in older drinkers. For older unsafe drinkers, the strongest predictor variables were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity; comorbidity was not a significant predictor. Lower socioeconomic deprivation was a significant predictor of unsafe consumption whereas African, Caribbean and Asian ethnicity were not.

CONCLUSIONS: Although under-reporting in high-alcohol consumption groups and poor health in older people who have stopped or controlled their drinking may have limited the interpretation of our results, we suggest that closer attention is paid to 'young older' male drinkers, as well as to older drinkers born outside the UK and those with lower levels of socioeconomic deprivation who are drinking above safe limits.

04 December 2014 In Social and Cultural Aspects

PURPOSE: Exposure to alcohol use in media is associated with adolescent alcohol use. Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on Internet media, such as social networking web sites. The purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically based content analysis of older adolescents' displayed alcohol references on a social networking web site.

METHODS: We evaluated 400 randomly selected public MySpace profiles of self-reported 17- to 20-year-olds from zip codes, representing urban, suburban, and rural communities in one Washington county. Content was evaluated for alcohol references, suggesting: (1) explicit versus figurative alcohol use, (2) alcohol-related motivations, associations, and consequences, including references that met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria. We compared profiles from four target zip codes for prevalence and frequency of alcohol display.

RESULTS: Of 400 profiles, 225 (56.3%) contained 341 references to alcohol. Profile owners who displayed alcohol references were mostly male (54.2%) and white (70.7%). The most frequent reference category was explicit use (49.3%); the most commonly displayed alcohol use motivation was peer pressure (4.7%). Few references met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria (3.2%). There were no differences in prevalence or frequency of alcohol display among the four sociodemographic communities.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite alcohol use being illegal and potentially stigmatizing in this population, explicit alcohol use is frequently referenced on adolescents' MySpace profiles across several sociodemographic communities. Motivations, associations, and consequences regarding alcohol use referenced on MySpace appear consistent with previous studies of adolescent alcohol use. These references may be a potent source of influence on adolescents, particularly given that they are created and displayed by peers.

04 December 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Moderate wine consumption has been associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk, but most investigations have been conducted in Caucasian populations. To investigate the relationship of wine consumption to CV risk markers, we studied a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged, healthy women (N = 2900; 48% white, 28% black, 7% Hispanic, 8% Chinese, 9% Japanese) participating in SWAN over 7 years with repeated assessments of CV risk factors. Consumption of wine was stable and common with 20% reporting none, 69% light (<1/day), 7% moderate ( = 1/day), and 4% heavy (>1/day). To guard against underreporting, we took the maximum reported wine consumption over 7 years as the predictor. We used mixed models with a random intercept and random time to assess the relationship between wine consumption and CV risk factors with moderate consumption as the reference. Outcome variables were log-transformed where necessary. Longitudinal models were adjusted for ethnicity, age, and time-varying menopausal status, hormone therapy use, overall alcohol consumption, high density lipoprotein (HDL), statin use, and a healthy lifestyle score based on physical activity, not smoking, and weight maintenance. Interactions of wine consumption with time were not significant. Moderate wine consumers had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, p < .001), fibrinogen (p < .001), factor VII (p < .01), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, p < .05) than women who drank no or little wine. These associations were independent of significant effects of healthy lifestyle and overall alcohol consumption and similar across ethnic groups. Moderate wine consumption may protect against CVD via inflammatory and clotting pathways.

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