23 November 2020 In Phenolic compounds

Dietary habits are a determining factor of the higher incidence and prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In the aim to find a possible preventive and intervention strategy, the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed as an effective approach.

Within the MedDiet, moderate wine consumption with meals is a positive item in the MedDiet score; however, recent studies have reported a dose-response association between alcohol consumption and higher risk of a large number of NCDs. This review aimed to evaluate the association between NCDs and wine consumption in the framework of the MedDiet, with a simple review of 22 studies of the highest-level literature published over the last five years. We found that the information regarding the effects of wine in different health outcomes has not varied widely over the past five years, finding inconclusive results among the studies evaluated.

Most of the literature agrees that light to moderate wine intake seems to have beneficial effects to some extent in NCDs, such as hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia and dementia, but no definitive recommendations can be made on a specific dose intake that can benefit most diseases.

25 August 2020 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: Moderate wine consumption is a characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Studies around the world have shown a beneficial effect of moderate alcohol intake, especially wine, on health. This review aims to critically summarise the most recent studies that investigate the beneficial effects of moderate wine intake on human health.

METHODS: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched to identify trials published from 2013 to 2018 that investigated the association between moderate wine consumption and health.

RESULTS: The most recent studies confirm the valuable role of moderate wine consumption, especially red wine, in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, cognitive decline, depression, and cancer. In the meantime, recent studies also highlight the beneficial role of red wine against oxidative stress and in favour of desirable gut bacteria. The beneficial role of red wine has been attributed to its phytochemical compounds, as highlighted by clinical trials, where the effect of red wine has been compared to white wine, non-alcoholic wine, other alcoholic drinks, and water.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate wine intake, at 1(-)2 glasses per day as part of the Mediterranean diet, has been positively associated with human health promotion, disease prevention, and disease prognosis.

25 August 2020 In Dementia

With an increase in life expectancy, the incidence of chronic degenerative pathologies such as dementia has progressively risen. Cognitive impairment leads to the gradual loss of skills, which results in substantial personal and financial cost at the individual and societal levels. Grapes and wines are rich in healthy compounds, which may help to maintain homeostasis and reduce the risk of several chronic illnesses, including dementia.

This review analyzed papers that were systematically searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CAB-Abstract, using the association between grapes (or their derivatives) and their effects on cognitive functions in humans. Analysis was restricted to epidemiological and randomized-controlled studies.

Consumption of grape juice (200-500 mL/day) and/or light-to-moderate wine (one to four glasses/day) was generally associated with improved cognitive performance, while the results for other alcoholic beverages were controversial and inconclusive. Bioactive molecules contained in grapes and wine were also considered, with particular attention paid to resveratrol.

Due to the relatively high doses required (150-1000 mg/day) for bioactivity coupled with its low bioavailability, resveratrol is only one of the possible grape-derived compounds that may partly underpin the beneficial effects of grapes on the central nervous system.

27 March 2020 In Dementia

With an increase in life expectancy, the incidence of chronic degenerative pathologies such as dementia has progressively risen. Cognitive impairment leads to the gradual loss of skills, which results in substantial personal and financial cost at the individual and societal levels. Grapes and wines are rich in healthy compounds, which may help to maintain homeostasis and reduce the risk of several chronic illnesses, including dementia. This review analyzed papers that were systematically searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CAB-Abstract, using the association between grapes (or their derivatives) and their effects on cognitive functions in humans. Analysis was restricted to epidemiological and randomized-controlled studies. Consumption of grape juice (200-500 mL/day) and/or light-to-moderate wine (one to four glasses/day) was generally associated with improved cognitive performance, while the results for other alcoholic beverages were controversial and inconclusive. Bioactive molecules contained in grapes and wine were also considered, with particular attention paid to resveratrol. Due to the relatively high doses required (150-1000 mg/day) for bioactivity coupled with its low bioavailability, resveratrol is only one of the possible grape-derived compounds that may partly underpin the beneficial effects of grapes on the central nervous system.

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