24 March 2021 In Cancer
Alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of several site-specific cancers, but its role in many other cancers remains inconclusive. Evidence is more limited from China, where cancer rates, drinking patterns and alcohol tolerability differ importantly from Western populations. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >512,000 adults aged 30-79 years from ten diverse areas during 2004-2008, recording alcohol consumption patterns by a standardised questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption was estimated as grams of pure alcohol per week based on beverage type, amount consumed per occasion, and drinking frequency. After ten years of follow-up, 26,961 individuals developed cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating alcohol consumption to incidence of site-specific cancers. Overall, 33% (n=69,734) of men drank alcohol regularly (i.e. >/=weekly) at baseline. Among male current regular drinkers, alcohol intake showed positive dose-response associations with risks of cancers in the oesophagus (655 events; HR=1.98 [95%CI 1.79-2.18], per 280g/week), mouth and throat (236; 1.74 [1.48-2.05]), liver (573; 1.52 [1.31-1.76]), colon-rectum (575; 1.19 [1.00-1.43]), gallbladder (107; 1.60 [1.16-2.22]), and lung (1017; 1.25 [1.10-1.42]), similarly among never- and ever-regular smokers. After adjustment for total alcohol intake, there were greater risks of oesophageal cancer in daily than non-daily drinkers, and of liver cancer when drinking without meals. The risks of oesophageal cancer and lung cancer were greater in men reporting flushing after drinking than not. In this male population, alcohol drinking accounted for 7% of cancer cases. Among women, only 2% drank regularly, with no clear associations between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Among Chinese men, alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of cancer at multiple sites, with certain drinking patterns (e.g. daily, drinking without meals) and low alcohol tolerance further exacerbating the risks.
23 November 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle is associated with substantially lower risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in white populations. However, little is known about the health benefits among non-white populations. Also, no previous studies have focused on respiratory disease mortality in both white and non-white populations. We assessed the relationships between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors and multiple death outcomes in Chinese adults.

METHODS: This study included 487,198 adults aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank without heart disease, stroke, and cancer at study enrolment. We defined five healthy lifestyle factors as never smoking or smoking cessation not due to illness; non-daily drinking or moderate alcohol drinking; median or higher level of physical activity; a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes and fish, and limited in red meat; a body mass index of 18.5 to 27.9 kg/m(2) and a waist circumference < 90 cm (men)/85 cm (women). Cox regression was used to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) relating these healthy lifestyle factors to all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10.2 years (IQR 9.2-11.1), we documented 37,845 deaths. After multivariable adjustment, the number of healthy lifestyle factors exhibited almost inverse linear relationships with the risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Compared with participants without any healthy factors, the hazard ratio of participants with five healthy factors was 0.32 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.37] for all-cause mortality. The corresponding HRs in specific cause of death were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.67) for ischaemic heart disease, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.49) for ischaemic stroke, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.60) for haemorrhage stroke, 0.36 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.45) for cancer, 0.26 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.48) for respiratory diseases, and 0.29 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.39) for other causes. Theoretically, 38.5% (95% CI: 33.0, 43.8%) of all-cause mortality was attributable to nonadherence to a healthy lifestyle, and the proportions of preventable deaths through lifestyle modification ranged from 26.9 to 47.9% for cause-specific mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was associated with substantially lower risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer mortality in Chinese adults. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle may considerably reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in China.

25 August 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, whether these associations differ according to the characteristics of patients with T2D remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore and summarize the evidence on the strength of the association between alcohol consumption and the subsequent risk of T2D by using a dose-response meta-analytic approach.

DESIGN: We identified potential studies by searching the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to 24 March 2015. Prospective observational studies that evaluated the relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of T2D and reported its effect estimates with 95% CIs were included.

RESULTS: Analyses were based on 706,716 individuals (275,711 men and 431,005 women) from 26 studies with 31,621 T2D cases. We detected a nonlinear relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of T2D, which was identified in all cohorts (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001), in men (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001), and in women (P-trend < 0.001, P-nonlinearity < 0.001). Compared with the minimal category of alcohol consumption, light (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.95; P = 0.005) and moderate (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.82; P < 0.001) alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2D. However, heavy alcohol consumption had little or no effect on subsequent T2D risk. Furthermore, the summary RR ratio (RRR; male to female) of the comparison between moderate alcohol consumption and the minimal alcohol categories for T2D was significantly higher, and the pooled RRR (current smoker to never smoker) of light alcohol consumption was significantly reduced.

CONCLUSIONS: Light and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2D, whereas heavy alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of T2D

25 August 2020 In Diabetes

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous meta-analyses identified an inverse association of total alcohol consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes. The current study further explored the relationship between specific types of alcoholic beverage and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from January 1966 to February 2016 was carried out for prospective cohort studies that assessed the effects of specific types of alcoholic beverage on the risk of type 2 diabetes. The pooled relative risks with 95% confidence interval were calculated using random- or fixed-effect models when appropriate.

RESULTS: A total of 13 prospective studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 397,296 study participants and 20,641 cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative to no or rare alcohol consumption, wine consumption was associated with a significant reduction of the risk of type 2 diabetes, with the pooled relative risks of 0.85, whereas beer or spirits consumption led to a slight trend of decreasing risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk 0.96, 0.95, respectively). Further dose-response analysis showed a U-shaped relationship between all three alcohol types and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the peak risk reduction emerged at 20-30 g/day for wine and beer, and at 7-15 g/day for spirits, with a decrease of 20, 9 and 5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with beer or spirits, wine was associated with a more significant decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study showed that wine might be more helpful for protection against type 2 diabetes than beer or spirits

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