26 February 2019 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Low-risk thresholds for alcohol use differ across various national guidelines. To assess the novel WHO risk drinking levels in light of alcohol-sensitive common laboratory tests, we analysed biomarkers of liver status, inflammation and lipid profiles from a population-based survey of individuals classified to abstainers and different WHO risk drinking levels defined in terms of mean alcohol consumption per day. The study included 22,327 participants aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK Study. Data on alcohol use, health status, diet, body weight and lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption and physical activity) were recorded from structured interviews. Alcohol data from self-reports covering the past 12 months were used to categorize the participants into subgroups of abstainers and WHO risk drinking categories representing low, moderate, high and very high risk drinkers. Serum liver enzymes (GGT, ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Alcohol risk category was roughly linearly related with the occurrence of elevated values for GGT, ALT and CRP. Alcohol drinking also significantly influenced the incidence of abnormalities in serum lipids. Significantly higher odds for abnormal GGT, ALT and altered lipid profiles remained in alcohol drinkers even after adjustment for age, waist circumference, physical inactivity, smoking and coffee consumption. A more systematic use of laboratory tests during treatment of individuals classified to WHO risk drinking categories may improve the assessment of alcohol-related health risks. Follow-ups of biomarker responses may also prove to be useful in health interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption.

18 May 2018 In Cancer

Importance: Inflammation is important in colorectal cancer development. Diet modulates inflammation and may thus be a crucial modifiable factor in colorectal cancer prevention.

Objective: To examine whether proinflammatory diets are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk by using an empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score based on a weighted sum of 18 food groups that characterizes dietary inflammatory potential based on circulating levels of inflammation biomarkers.

Design, Settings, and Participants: Cohort study of 46804 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study: 1986-2012) and 74246 women (Nurses' Health Study: 1984-2012) followed for 26 years to examine associations between EDIP scores and colorectal cancer risk using Cox regression. We also examined associations in categories of alcohol intake and body weight. Data analysis began January 17, 2017, and was completed August 9, 2017.

Exposures: EDIP scores calculated from food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 years.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident colorectal cancer.

Results: We documented 2699 incident colorectal cancer cases over 2571831 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest EDIP quintile (Q) who had a colorectal cancer incidence rate (per 100000 person-years) of 113 (men) and 80 (women), those in the highest Q had an incidence rate of 151 (men) and 92 (women), leading to an unadjusted rate difference of 38 and 12 more colorectal cancer cases, respectively, among those consuming highly proinflammatory diets. Comparing participants in the highest vs lowest EDIP Qs in multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher EDIP scores were associated with 44% (men: hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19-1.74; P < .001 for trend), 22% (women: HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45; P = .007 for trend), and 32% (men and women: pooled HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12-1.55; P < .001 for trend) higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. In both men and women, associations were observed in all anatomic subsites except for the rectum in women. In subgroups (P </= .02 for all interactions), associations differed by alcohol intake level, with stronger associations among men (Q5 vs Q1 HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.05-2.49; P = .002 for trend) and women (Q5 vs Q1 HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.97-1.81; P = .03 for trend) not consuming alcohol; and by body weight, with stronger associations among overweight/obese men (Q5 vs Q1 HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.94; P = .008 for trend) and lean women (Q5 vs Q1 HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.99-1.74; P = .01 for trend).

Conclusions and Relevance: Findings suggest that inflammation is a potential mechanism linking dietary patterns and colorectal cancer development. Interventions to reduce the adverse role of proinflammatory diets may be more effective among overweight/obese men and lean women or men and women who do not consume alcohol.

03 May 2018 In General Health
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the potential effects of alcohol by subtype on reported long-term weight change. METHODS: This study examined changes in alcohol intake (total, wine, light beer, regular beer, and liquor) and simultaneous changes in reported body weight within 4-year periods from 1986 to 2010 from US men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. The study adjusted for age, changes in lifestyle and dietary covariates, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: The study included observations of 44,603 four-year periods from 14,971 men. Total alcohol, total beer, regular beer, and liquor intakes, modeled as the increase in weight per increase in drinks per day, were each directly associated with moderate weight gain over the 4-year periods, in pounds: total alcohol: 0.23 (0.10 to 0.35); total beer: 0.29 (0.08 to 0.51); regular beer: 0.61 (0.22 to 1.00); and liquor: 0.28 (0.09 to 0.48). Results for wine and light beer were as follows: wine: 0.16 (-0.04 to 0.36) and light beer: -0.38 (-1.07 to 0.08). Results were strongest for men
17 May 2016 In General Health

OBJECTIVES: This study provides cross-sectional information on alcoholic beverages as potential sources of moisture and calories for drinkers in the United States. Associations between number of drinks per day and body weight status were also studied.

METHODS: Multivariable regression models were used to ascertain associations while controlling for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Compared to nondrinkers, daily moisture intake increased as the number of drinks increased. Increase in daily moisture intake of drinkers remained significant even after correcting for diuretic effects of ethanol (men: 270.6 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 115.7-425.4], P = 0.001) and (women: 193.0 g [95% CI, 76.8-309.4], P = 0.002). The increase in daily moisture intake after correcting for diuretic losses were men: 3.9% to 9.6%; and women: 4.1% to 12.8% depending on number of drinks. The increase in calorie intake was 6.7% to 16.2% of men's, and 6.4% to 16.0% of women's daily intake. Compared to nondrinking counterparts, men who consumed 2 or more drinks per day were more likely to be overweight whereas men who consumed 4 or more drinks per day were more likely to be obese (odds ratio: 1.63 [95% CI, 1.10-2.40], P = 0.015). Women at all levels of drinking were less likely to be obese (odds ratio: 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.88], P = 0.004) compared to nondrinking counterparts.

CONCLUSION: Alcoholic beverages contribute to moisture intake despite the diuretic effect of their ethanol content. Calorie intake increase with increasing alcohol intake among men and women but only men associate with increased likelihood of overweight and obesity. Women drinkers associate with lower body mass index and are less likely to be overweight or obese.

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