13 October 2020 In Drinking Patterns
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.
13 October 2020 In Diabetes
Background Heavy alcohol consumption has a well-established association with hypertension. However, doubt persists whether moderate alcohol consumption has a similar link. This relationship is not well-studied in patients with diabetes mellitus. We aimed to describe the association of alcohol consumption with prevalent hypertension in participants in the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) trial. Methods and Results Alcohol consumption was categorized as none, light (1-7 drinks/week), moderate (8-14 drinks/week), and heavy (>/=15 drinks/week). Blood pressure was categorized using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines as normal, elevated blood pressure, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between alcohol consumption and prevalent hypertension. A total of 10 200 eligible participants were analyzed. Light alcohol consumption was not associated with elevated blood pressure or any stage hypertension. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with elevated blood pressure, stage 1, and stage 2 hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.04-3.11, P=0.03; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.05-2.60, P=0.03; and OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.03-2.54, P=0.03, respectively). Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with elevated blood pressure, stage 1, and stage 2 hypertension (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.17-3.12, P=0.01; OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.03-6.17, P=0.03; and OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.28-7.22, P=0.01, respectively). Conclusions Despite prior research, our findings show moderate alcohol consumption is associated with hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated cardiovascular risk. We also note a dose-risk relationship with the amount of alcohol consumed and the degree of hypertension.
13 October 2020 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: In accordance with the scientific literature heavy alcohol consumption (>50g per day) represents a risk factor for several diseases development, including cancer. However, the oncogenic role of light alcohol drinking (
13 October 2020 In Cancer
The potential of physical activity (PA) to attenuate the effects of alcohol consumption on the risks of alcohol-related cancer mortality is unknown. We used data from participants aged 30 years and over in 10 British population-based surveys (Health Surveys for England 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008 and the Scottish Health Surveys 1998 and 2003). Alcohol-related cancer mortality included oral cavity, throat, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, stomach and female breast (conservative definition), and additionally pancreas and lung (broad definition). Alcohol consumption was categorised into six groups based on the UK units/week: (a) never-drinkers, (b) ex-drinkers, (c) occasional drinkers, (d) within guidelines (35 [women]; >49 [men]). PA was categorised using two dichotomous classifications based on the lower (7.5 Metabolic Equivalent Task [MET]-hours/week) and upper (15 MET-hours/week) recommended limits. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found a strong direct association between alcohol consumption and mortality risk of alcohol-related cancers, with a significantly higher risk among ex-drinkers (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.09, 1.94]), drinkers who consumed hazardous (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.83]) and harmful amounts of alcohol (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = [1.13, 2.30]) compared to never-drinkers in the fully adjusted model. The increased mortality risks were substantially attenuated when participants in these drinking groups exercised >7.5 MET-hours/week. PA could be promoted as an adjunct risk minimisation measure for alcohol-related cancer prevention.
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