23 November 2020 In Drinking Patterns

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between drinking patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the Korean general population and to validate the estimation of the association of alcohol use on HRQoL when former drinkers are separated from never drinkers and low-risk drinkers depending on gender. Data were collected from 23,055 adults (over 19 years old) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2013).

Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between drinking patterns and HRQoL. When former drinkers were separated from never drinkers and low-risk drinkers to control for misclassification bias, there were gender differences in the associations between alcohol use and HRQoL. Although the estimation of the association of alcohol use was not valid in men, the estimation of association was valid in women, as low-risk women drinkers showed better HRQoL than nondrinkers.

Therefore, when conducting research related to alcohol and health, analyses should correct for the various confounding variables and minimize the misclassification bias of drinking patterns. It is also necessary to consider gender characteristics when intervening to improve HRQoL related to drinking.

23 November 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Evidence is lacking on the effects of binge alcohol consumption on metabolic syndrome in the rural South African population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between binge drinking and components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) amongst Ellisras rural young adults aged 21 to 31 years who are part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was applied to a total of 624 participants (306 males and 318 females) aged 21 to 31 years who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study (ELS). The model was adjusted for covariates, including smoking, age, and gender. Binge alcohol consumption was assessed using a standardised questionnaire that was validated for the Ellisras rural community. A standardised method of determining the components MetS was used after fasting blood samples were collected from all the participants.

RESULTS: Binge drinking remained significantly associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.23-5.65), after being adjusted for smoking, age, and gender. Other MetS components were not predicted. Instead, gender remained significantly associated with all MetS components, except triglycerides, at multivariate analysis. Age retained significance at multivariate analysis with waist girth (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.37-3.34), triglycerides (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.05-5.02), and the MetS composite (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12-2.41).

CONCLUSION: Binge drinking was significantly associated with lower levels of HDL-C. Future studies should investigate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the components of incident MetS in this population.

23 November 2020 In Diabetes

The search for a quality diet has grown over the past decade. Diet is considered one of the pillars for the prevention and progression of several diseases, among them: diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an epidemic of western countries that increases the vulnerability of other diseases, such as cardiovascular and cancer. T2D is associated with lifestyle and diet.

The traditional Mediterranean diet has proven its benefits over several cardiovascular risk factors, and specifically on diabetes. This review compiles recent published evidence on the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the incidence and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its relation with several other cardiovascular healthy diets. We will also focus on how the Mediterranean diet could play a role in T2D-related mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory or antioxidant compounds, glucagon-like peptide agonist compounds, and changes in gut microbiota.

Each component of the Mediterranean diet could be involved in processes related to diabetes homeostasis, many of them sharing common physio-pathological pathways. The importance of this diet within the set of habits of a healthy lifestyle must be emphasized.

23 November 2020 In Diabetes

Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals.

The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events.

The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.

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