13 October 2020 In Phenolic compounds
Polyphenols are antioxidants contained in plants as olive and grape. As part of the Mediterranean diet, they may decrease the risk of cancer, of chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Alcohol consumption plays a detrimental effect on health, causing tissue damage and disrupting the metabolism of Neurotrophins (NTs). NTs are crucial proteins for the life cycle of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Alcohol abuse elicits changes in NTs levels in the brain and in other target organs, however, it was observed minor damage in animals early exposed to red wine, probably due to the antioxidant effects of polyphenols. Indeed, data show that resveratrol or other polyphenols extracted from the olive can effectively counteract serum free radicals’ formation caused by chronic alcohol intake, contrasting also alcohol-induced NTs liver elevation. The aim of the present review is to update pieces of evidences about the antioxidant properties of polyphenols and their role in counteracting alcohol-induced damage.
13 October 2020 In Phenolic compounds
BACKGROUND: Effects of resveratrol on metabolic health have been studied in several short-term human clinical trials, with conflicting results. Next to dose, the duration of the clinical trials may explain the lack of effect in some studies, but long-term studies are still limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-mo resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health outcome parameters. METHODS: Forty-one overweight men and women (BMI: 27-35 kg/m2; aged 40-70 y) completed the study. In this parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial, participants were randomized to receive either 150 mg/d of resveratrol (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 6 mo. The primary outcome of the study was insulin sensitivity, using the Matsuda index. Secondary outcome measures were intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, body composition, resting energy metabolism, blood pressure, plasma markers, physical performance, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Postintervention differences between the resveratrol and placebo arms were evaluated by ANCOVA adjusting for corresponding preintervention variables. RESULTS: Preintervention, no differences were observed between the 2 treatment arms. Insulin sensitivity was not affected after 6 mo of resveratrol treatment (adjusted mean Matsuda index: 5.18 +/- 0.35 in the resveratrol arm compared with 5.50 +/- 0.34 in the placebo arm), although there was a significant difference in postintervention glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between the arms (P = 0.007). The adjusted means showed that postintervention HbA1c was lower on resveratrol (35.8 +/- 0.43 mmol/mol) compared with placebo (37.6 +/- 0.44 mmol/mol). No postintervention differences were found in IHL, body composition, blood pressure, energy metabolism, physical performance, or quality of life and sleep between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: After 6 mo of resveratrol supplementation, insulin sensitivity was unaffected in the resveratrol arm compared with the placebo arm. Nonetheless, HbA1c was lower in overweight men and women in the resveratrol arm. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02565979.
13 October 2020 In Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, with a prevalence of 25-30%. Since its first description in 1980, NAFLD has been conceived as a different entity from alcohol-related fatty liver disease (ALD), despite that, both diseases have an overlap in the pathophysiology, share genetic-epigenetic factors, and frequently coexist. Both entities are characterized by a broad spectrum of histological features ranging from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Distinction between NAFLD and ALD is based on the amount of consumed alcohol, which has been arbitrarily established. In this context, a proposal of positive criteria for NAFLD diagnosis not considering exclusion of alcohol consumption as a prerequisite criterion for diagnosis had emerged, recognizing the possibility of a dual etiology of fatty liver in some individuals. The impact of moderate alcohol use on the severity of NAFLD is ill-defined. Some studies suggest protective effects in moderate doses, but current evidence shows that there is no safe threshold for alcohol consumption for NAFLD. In fact, given the synergistic effect between alcohol consumption, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction, it is likely that alcohol use serves as a significant risk factor for the progression of liver disease in NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. This also affects the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we summarize the overlapping pathophysiology of NAFLD and ALD, the current data on alcohol consumption in patients with NAFLD, and the effects of metabolic dysfunction and overweight in ALD.
13 October 2020 In General Health
Five different wines (standard Grasevina, macerated Grasevina with and without sulfur, rose, and standard Plavac Mali), all typical Croatian wines, were tested to determine the antimicrobial activity against two Escherichia coli bacterial strains (ATCC((R)) 25922 and ATCC((R)) 8739) in vitro and using sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets as food matrix. The chemical composition of wines (pH, acidity, alcohol, total phenolics, anthocyanins, tannins, and sulfur content) and antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), agar-well diffusion method) were determined. The total phenolic content of the wines ranged from 305-3210 mg gallic acid equivalents per liter (GAE/L), and did not correlate to antimicrobial activity. The two wines with the lowest phenolic content (standard Grasevina and rose) had the lowest MIC values (122 and 429 mg GAE/L). A specific relation between the winemaking process and a particular MIC value was not established. There was also no relation found between the pH value, ethanol content, sulfur, or phenolics in regards to the antimicrobial effect. In fish fillets marinated in wine + water mixture (v/v = 1:1) and inoculated with 7 log colony forming units (CFU)/25 g the growth of bacteria was reduced after three days of storage at 4 degrees C. Subsequent storage resulted in the growth of bacteria in all samples, with the lowest growth of E. coli ATCC((R)) 25922 in macerated Grasevina and E. coli ATCC((R)) 8739 in standard Grasevina. All wines showed the capacity to reduce the number and growth of heavily infected sea bass filets, but correlation with specific wine constituents was not found. Taking into account the numerous reactive mechanisms between food and wine, all in vitro studies in controlled laboratory conditions should be further verified in the relevant environment, and additional research is needed to clarify the role of individual wine components in the mechanism of antimicrobial activity.
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