22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

Plant-derived (poly)phenolic compounds have been undoubtedly shown to promote endocrine homeostasis through the improvement of diverse metabolic outcomes. Amongst diverse potential mechanisms, the prebiotic modulatory effects exerted by these compounds on the gut microbiota have supported their nutraceutical application in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the comprehension of the microbiota modulatory patterns observed upon (poly)phenol-based dietary interventions is still in its infancy, which makes the standardization of the metabolic outcomes in response to a given (poly)phenol a herculean task. Thus, this narrative review sought to gather up-to-date information on the relationship among (poly)phenols intake, their modulatory effect on the gut microbiota diversity, and consequent metabolic outcomes as a supportive tool for the future design of experimental approaches and even clinical trials.

22 September 2022 In Phenolic compounds

(Poly)phenols have anti-diabetic properties that are mediated through the regulation of the main biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR)), as well as the modulation of other metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. A wide range of human and pre-clinical studies supports these effects for different plant products containing mixed (poly)phenols (e.g., berries, cocoa, tea) and for some single compounds (e.g., resveratrol). We went through some of the latest human intervention trials and pre-clinical studies looking at (poly)phenols against T2DM to update the current evidence and to examine the progress in this field to achieve consistent proof of the anti-diabetic benefits of these compounds. Overall, the reported effects remain small and highly variable, and the accumulated data are still limited and contradictory, as shown by recent meta-analyses. We found newly published studies with better experimental strategies, but there were also examples of studies that still need to be improved. Herein, we highlight some of the main aspects that still need to be considered in future studies and reinforce the messages that need to be taken on board to achieve consistent evidence of the anti-diabetic effects of (poly)phenols.

22 September 2022 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain represents a global health problem with a considerable economic burden. The relation of alcohol intake and chronic pain conditions was assessed in several studies with conflicting results. We used dose-response meta-analysis techniques to answer the question of whether alcohol intake is related to chronic pain occurrence.

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases to identify cohort and case-control studies on alcohol consumption and chronic pain. Sixteen studies were eligible with a total population of 642 587 individuals. Fixed-effects and random-effects pooled estimates were obtained by weighting log odds ratios (ORs) in case-control studies and log incidence rate ratios in cohort studies by the inverse of their variance. A heterogeneity assessment and a dose-response analysis were carried out. Quality scoring was also performed.

RESULTS: Our results show that any alcohol consumption was related to lower odds of chronic pain (pooled OR=0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.95). The association was non-linear. The ORs by quartile of alcohol doses were as follows: OR2nd quartile=0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87; OR3rd quartile=0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86; and OR4th quartile=0.75; 95% CI, 0.50-1.14. This association was observed for cohort studies (OR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.98) and European studies (OR=0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.87) only. Studies with complete adjustment for confounding factors showed a stronger relation than those with incomplete adjustment (OR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99 and OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.65-1.11, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption presents a non-linear inverse association with the occurrence of chronic pain. Although plausible mechanisms could explain this protective effect, other explanations, including reverse causation, are probable.

22 September 2022 In General Health

The association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma has been widely studied, but these results have yielded conflicting findings. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and updated meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the association between alcohol intake and the risk of glioma. A systematic literature search of relevant articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wan fang databases up to December 2021 was conducted. Pooled estimated of relative risk (RR) and 95 % CI were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of eight articles with three case-control studies involving 2706 glioma cases and 2 189 927 participants were included in this meta-analysis. A reduced risk of glioma was shown for the low-moderate alcohol drinking v. non-drinking (RR = 0.87; 95 % CI (0.78, 0.97); P = 0.014). In addition, there was no evidence of an increased risk of glioma in the heavy alcohol drinking compared with non-drinking (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI (0.67, 1.18); P = 0.404). The findings suggest an inverse association between low-moderate alcohol drinking and the risk of glioma, in the absence, however, of a dose-response relationship. More prospective studies are needed to provide further insight into the association between alcohol drinking and glioma risk.

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