25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND: Reductions in World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels have recently been shown to lower the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, but prior work has not examined reductions in WHO risk drinking levels in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States and of global mortality. This study examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking levels and subsequent risk for CVD. METHODS: In a US national survey, 1,058 very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers participated in Wave 1 interviews (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 follow-ups (2004 to 2005). Self-reported CVD history that was communicated to the participant by a doctor or other healthcare professionals included arteriosclerosis, hypertension, angina, tachycardia, or myocardial infarction. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) evaluating relationships between >/=2-level reductions in WHO risk drinking levels from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the risk of Wave 2 CVD, controlling for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD in individuals who at Wave 1 were very-high-risk (aOR = 0.58 [0.41 to 0.80]) or high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.81 [0.70 to 0.94]). Interaction terms showed that this relationship varied by age. Among individuals >40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among very-high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.42 [0.28 to 0.63]) but not high-risk drinkers (p = 0.50). Among individuals =40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of >/=2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.50 [0.37 to 0.69]) but not very-high-risk drinkers (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that reductions in WHO risk drinking levels are associated with reduced CVD risk among very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers in the US general population, and provide further evidence that reducing high levels of drinking provides important benefit across multiple clinical domains.
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The alcohol-hypertension relation has been well documented, but whether women have protective effect or race and type of beverage consumed affect the association remain unclear. To quantify the relation between total or beverage-specific alcohol consumption and incident hypertension by considering the effect of sex and race. METHODS AND RESULTS: Articles were identified in PubMed and Embase databases with no restriction on publication date. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by random effects models. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association. This study involved 22 articles (31 studies) and included 414,477 participants. The hypertension risk was different among liquor, wine, and beer at 5.1-10 g/d of ethanol consumption (P-across subgroups = 0.002). The hypertension risk differed between men (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20) and women (RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) at 10 g/d (P-across subgroups = 0.005). We found a linear alcohol-hypertension association among white (P-linearity = 0.017), black people (P-linearity = 0.035), and Asians (P-linearity
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are inconsistencies in the effects of low to moderate dose alcohol consumption on the development of hypertension in adult men. We hypothesized that a region-specific effect might participate in this heterogeneity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of alcohol dose on hypertension incidence using contemporary data through December 2017. Subjects were categorized according to their level of alcohol consumption as non-drinkers (reference) and low- (0.01 to 20.0 g/day), moderate- (20.1 to 40.0 g/day), moderate- to high- (40.1 to 60.0 g/day), and high-dose (> 60.0 g/day) drinkers. We defined hypertension as a blood pressure >/= 140/90 mmHg and/or the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. RESULTS: In total, 11 articles (seven Asian and four Western) were selected for our analysis. Among Asian men, a significantly elevated risk was observed even in the low alcohol dose group in comparison with the group with no alcohol consumption, and the risk increased in a dose-dependent manner (pooled relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CI)]: 1.25 [1.13 to 1.38], 1.48 [1.27 to 1.72], 1.75 [1.43 to 2.15], and 1.78 [1.51 to 2.09]). Among Western men, a similar dose-response relationship was noted in general (p for subgroup difference > 0.1), but a significantly elevated risk was evident only in the high-dose group (pooled relative risks [95% CI]: 1.22 [0.85 to 1.74], 1.57 [0.90 to 2.75], 1.47 [0.44 to 4.91], and 1.49 [1.02 to 2.18]). CONCLUSION: Even low doses of alcohol can lead to the development of hypertension, particularly in Asian men. Our findings could serve as additional evidence for developing an appropriate preventive strategy in each region.
25 August 2020 In Cardiovascular System
Importance: More than 1 million older adults develop heart failure annually. The association of alcohol consumption with survival among these individuals after diagnosis is unknown. Objective: To determine whether alcohol use is associated with increased survival among older adults with incident heart failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 5888 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who were recruited to participate in the Cardiovascular Health Study between June 12, 1989, and June 1993, from 4 US sites. Of the total participants, 393 individuals had a new diagnosis of heart failure within the first 9 years of follow-up through June 2013. The study analysis was performed between January 19, 2016, and September 22, 2016. Exposures: Alcohol consumption was divided into 4 categories: abstainers (never drinkers), former drinkers, 7 or fewer alcoholic drinks per week, and more than 7 drinks per week. Primary Outcomes and Measures: Participant survival after the diagnosis of incident heart failure. Results: Among the 393 adults diagnosed with incident heart failure, 213 (54.2%) were female, 339 (86.3%) were white, and the mean (SD) age was 78.7 (6.0) years. Alcohol consumption after diagnosis was reported in 129 (32.8%) of the participants. Across alcohol consumption categories of long-term abstainers, former drinkers, consumers of 1-7 drinks weekly and consumers of more than 7 drinks weekly, the percentage of men (32.1%, 49.0%, 58.0%, and 82.4%, respectively; P
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