Resveratrol, (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a non-flavonoid polyphenol stilbene synthesized by plants when damaged by infectious diseases or ionizing radiation. Although present in more than seventy plant species, grapes and wine are the major dietary contributors of resveratrol, responsible for 98% of the daily intake. In 1992, Renaud and De Lorgeril first linked wine polyphenols, including resveratrol, to the potential health benefits ascribed to regular and moderate wine consumption (the so called "French Paradox"). Since then, resveratrol has received increasing scientific interest, leading to research on its biological actions, and to a large number of published papers, which have been collected and discussed in this review. The relatively low amounts of resveratrol measured in wine following moderate consumption, however, may be insufficient to mitigate biological damage, such as that due to oxidative stress. On this basis, the authors also highlight the importance of viticulture and the winemaking process to enhance resveratrol concentrations in wine in order to bolster potential health benefits.

Published in Phenolic compounds
Wednesday, 13 December 2017 15:12

Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

Published in Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations of alcohol consumption and liver holidays with all-cause mortality and with mortality due to cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and injury using a large-scale prospective study in Japan.

METHODS: We followed 102,849 Japanese who were aged between 40 and 69 years at baseline for 18.2 years on average, during which 15,203 deaths were reported. Associations between alcohol intake and mortality risk were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model, with analysis by the number of liver holidays (in which a person abstains from drinking for several days a week).

RESULTS: A J-shaped association was observed between alcohol intake and total mortality in men (nondrinkers: reference; occasional drinkers: hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.80; 1-149 g/week: HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.81; 150-299 g/week: HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.80; 300-449 g/week: HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.91; 450-599 g/week: HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83-1.01; and >/=600 g/week: HR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) and in women (nondrinkers: reference; occasional: HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.82; 1-149 g/week: HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.88; 150-299 g/week: HR 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.13; 300-449 g/week: HR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73-1.48; and >/=450 g/week: HR 1.59; 95% CI, 1.07-2.38). In current drinkers, alcohol consumption was associated with a linear, positive increase in mortality risk from all causes, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease in both men and women, but not heart disease in men. Taking of liver holidays was associated with a lower risk of cancer and cerebrovascular disease mortality in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake showed J-shaped associations with the risk of total mortality and three leading causes of death. However, heavy drinking increases the risk of mortality, which highlights the necessity of drinking in moderation coupled with liver holidays.

Published in Liver Disease

To what extent could alcohol consumption affects female fertility is still unclear. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the dose-response relation between total and specific types of alcohol beverage (beer, wine, and spirits) consumption in female and the fecundability. Four electronic databases were searched. Observational studies (cohort and case-control) that provided female alcohol consumption and fecundity were eligible. Nineteen studies, involving 98657 women, were included in this study. Compared to non-drinkers, the combined estimate (with relative risk, RR) of alcohol consumers on fecundability was 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.95) for overall 19 studies. Compared to non-drinkers, the pooled estimates were 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97) for light drinkers (12.5 g/day of ethanol). Moreover, compared to non-drinkers, the corresponding estimates on fecundability were 0.98 (95% CI 0.85-1.11), 1.02 (95% CI 0.99-1.05), and 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01) for studies focused on wine, beer and spirits, respectively. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested a linear association between decreased fecundability and every 12.5 g/d increasing in alcohol consumption with a RR 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). This first systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that female alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced fecundability.

Published in Liver Disease
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The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer.