Social and Cultural Aspects

In Europe and the world, the consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages as well as the expectations about the effects of alcohol are strongly influenced by cultural factors. The vast majority of people who drink wine, do so in moderation. This is the reason why reducing the overall amount of alcohol a society consumes does not necessarily reduce the drinking problems in this society. Thus, it is important to consider cultural and social factors when developing alcohol policies.

 

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AIM: To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, articles examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations or b) new specific marketing policies or c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorised into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the articles were fully second reviewed. Seventeen articles met the review criteria.…
To demand 'evidence-based medicine' and 'evidence-based research' has become almost a dogma for researchers and policy-makers in Western cultures. A critical analysis shows that the original intention of the term 'evidence-based' was to aim to use the best existing evidence (emphasising that research should be planned and interpreted in a methodologically correct way), while recognising that, in some areas, experimental research would be neither sensible nor feasible. However, as the paradigm has become established, three dubious and commonly coexisting additional connotations have become prominent in practice: 'proven beyond doubt', 'exclusively relying on experimental research' and 'any conclusions based on empirical data'. Drawing on examples from renowned publications that demand an 'evidence-based alcohol policy', this article argues that much of what…
We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. We surveyed 1,056 local law enforcement agencies in the US and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were…
AIMS: There are many consequences of binge drinking compared with light or moderate drinking behaviors. The prevalence rate and intensity of binge drinking is highest among the college-aged population. Given the popularity and high use of the Internet among college students, a novel approach for programming is through Internet-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of Internet-based interventions targeting binge drinking among the college population. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included peer-reviewed articles evaluating Internet-based interventions for binge drinking prevention among college students published between 2000 and 2014. Only English language articles were included. Review articles and articles only explaining intervention pedagogies were not included. After a systematic screening process, a total of 14 articles were…
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the alcohol policy environment (ie, the combined effectiveness and implementation of multiple existing alcohol policies) and youth drinking in the United States has not been assessed. We hypothesized that stronger alcohol policy environments are inversely associated with youth drinking, and this relationship is partly explained by adult drinking. METHODS: Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores that characterized the strength of the state-level alcohol policy environments were assessed with repeated cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of representative samples of high school students in grades 9 to 12, from biennial years between 1999 and 2011. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, a 10 percentage point increase in APS scores (representing stronger policy environments) was associated with an 8% reduction…

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