Pregnant Women

The consumption of alcoholic beverages in pregnant women can cause malformations of the embryo and their offspring may exhibit symptoms of foetal alcohol effects, or a collection of foetal alcohol effects called foetal alcohol syndrome; this relationship has been established for heavy alcohol consumption. A no-effect level to prevent harming the unborn child, however,  has not been established. This is the reason why alcoholic beverages should be avoided during pregnancy.


The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

Aim: The aim of the current study is to examine, using cross-sectional data, the role of maternal age, period (year of pregnancy) and cohort (year of birth) as predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy over a 10-year period. Design: Four cross-sectional surveys were examined, both separately and together. Setting: Using cross-sectional data, there does appear to be a positive relationship between maternal age and alcohol consumption during pregnancy; however, within any one survey period, it is difficult to determine if these patterns are due to period or cohort effects. Participants: The National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) is a large-scale survey administered to more than 20,000 respondents. Across four survey periods, 3,281 women reported being pregnant in the 12 months…
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of low levels of maternal alcohol intake on the neuropsychological development of the child. This study is part of an ongoing investigation on maternal drinking and presents data on demographic variables, maternal alcohol use, and birth outcomes from that study. METHODS: The sample comprised 2,264 women from a Swedish antenatal clinic. Retrospective self-report data were collected on alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and on nicotine use. Specific alcohol biomarkers for excessive drinking, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in whole blood, were determined during mid-pregnancy in a subsample of the women. Data on labor and early characteristics of the child were also…
BACKGROUND: Various human and animal studies suggest that peak alcohol exposure during a binge episode, rather than total alcohol exposure, may determine fetal development. Research about the impact of binge drinking on birth outcomes is sparse and inconclusive. Data from the Born in Bradford cohort study were used to explore the impact of binge drinking on birth outcomes. METHODS: Interview-administered questionnaire data about the lifestyle and social characteristics of 10 851 pregnancies were linked to maternity and birth data. The impact of self-reported binge drinking (5 units: 40 g of pure alcohol) on two birth outcomes (small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (
The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether light drinking in pregnancy is linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in children. DESIGN: Prospective population-based cohort. SETTING: UK. POPULATION: Ten thousand five hundred and thirty-four 7-year-olds. METHODS: Quasi-experimental using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare children born to light (up to 2 units per week) and non-drinkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Behavioural difficulties rated by parents and teachers; cognitive test scores for reading, maths and spatial skills. RESULTS: Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and PSM analyses are presented. For behavioural difficulties, unadjusted estimates for percentage standard deviation (SD) score differences ranged from 2 to 14%. On adjustment for potential confounders, differences were attenuated, with a loss of statistical significance, except for teacher-rated boys' difficulties. For boys, parent-rated…


The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer.