Pregnant Women

The consumption of alcoholic beverages in pregnant women can cause malformations of the embryo and their offspring may exhibit symptoms of foetal alcohol effects, or a collection of foetal alcohol effects called foetal alcohol syndrome; this relationship has been established for heavy alcohol consumption. A no-effect level to prevent harming the unborn child, however,  has not been established. This is the reason why alcoholic beverages should be avoided during pregnancy.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the frequency and timing of binge drinking episodes (intake of five or more drinks on one occasion) during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy increase the risk of fetal death. METHODS: The study is based upon data from 89,201 women who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002 and participated in an interview that took place in midpregnancy (n=86,752) or after a fetal loss (n=2,449). In total, 3,714 pregnancies resulted in fetal death. Data were analyzed by means of Cox regression models. RESULTS: Neither the frequency nor the timing of binge episodes was related to the risk of early (at or before 12 completed weeks) or late (13-21 completed weeks) spontaneous…
Aims and Method: Alcohol warning labels are one way of influencing alcohol consumption in pregnancy and thereby preventing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). This scoping review describes the literature on the influence of alcohol warning labels (AWLs) for changing attitudes and behavior related to alcohol use in pregnancy; draws on the larger literature related to effectiveness of AWLs which may have relevance to FASD prevention; and situates AWLs within a continuum of strategies to prevent FASD. Findings: Our review of the published literature suggests that while AWLs are popular with the public, their effectiveness for changing drinking behavior is limited. Available research suggests that for maximum effect, AWLs should speak clearly about the consequences of alcohol consumption and should also…
BACKGROUND: There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. METHODS: We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring's IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to…
The brain is one of the major target organs of alcohol actions. Alcohol abuse can lead to alterations in brain structure and functions and, in some cases, to neurodegeneration. Cognitive deficits and alcohol dependence are highly damaging consequences of alcohol abuse. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to alcohol, and that drinking during gestation can lead to a range of physical, learning and behavioral defects (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), with the most dramatic presentation corresponding to fetal alcohol syndrome. Recent findings also indicate that adolescence is a stage of brain maturation and that heavy drinking at this stage can have a negative impact on brain structure and functions causing important short- and long-term…
BACKGROUND: Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort. METHODS: A cohort study carried out within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort. A total of the 92 719 participants enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort who provided information about lifestyle during first trimester of pregnancy were included in the study. Information about average weekly consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, smoking, coffee drinking, occupational status and reproductive history were obtained by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews. Pregnancy outcomes (spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, live birth…

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