Phenolic compounds

 

Wine contains phenolic compounds (polyphenols) which give wine its characteristic colour and flavour and are produced by plants in response to fungal infection, ultraviolet light, and various chemical and physical stressors, especially during ripening. They are extracted from the seeds and skins of grapes during fermentation of winemaking, when the juice is in contact with the grape skins and seeds. The amount of polyphenols in red wine is generally greater than white wine because the red juice has longer contact with the grape skins during fermentation enabling more phenolic substances to be extracted into the red juice.

There is evidence that certain polyphenols, such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, flavonols and catechins in wine provide health benefits. Furthermore, rather than polyphenols themselves, their metabolites might be the real key players in cardiovascular and cancer protection. Researchers have shown that these polyphenols in wine act as antioxidants and are five times more potent than the benchmark antioxidant, vitamin E. These antioxidants are believed to reduce the damage caused by the body's free radicals (toxic waste products) which contribute to causing degenerative diseases in the body such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing.

The polyphenols may also aid in inhibiting the oxidative transformation of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol and thus, preventing the accumulation of this oxidised LDL cholesterol in the artery wall which eventually could block the blood flow and cause a heart attack or stroke.

These findings support the overwhelming and still growing body of scientific research indicating that moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with lower levels of coronary heart disease as well as with better health and lower mortality, especially when consumed in combination with
a healthy diet.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

White wines are generally low in polyphenol content as compared to red wines. However, Champagne wines have been shown to contain relatively high amounts of phenolic acids that may exert protective cellular actions in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of Champagne wine extracts, and individual phenolics present in these extracts, against peroxynitrite-induced injury. Organic and aqueous Champagne wine extracts exhibited potent neuroprotective activity against peroxynitrite-induced injury at low concentrations (0.1 microg/mL). This protection appeared to be in part due to the cellular actions of individual components found in the organic extracts, notably tyrosol, caffeic acid, and gallic acid. These phenolics were observed to exert potent neuroprotection at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 microM. Together,…
The natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) displays a wide spectrum of health beneficial activities, yet the precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that RSV promotes the multimerization and cellular levels of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The stimulatory effect of RSV was not affected by knocking out Sirt1, but was diminished by suppressing the expression levels of DsbA-L, a recently identified adiponectin-interactive protein that promotes adiponectin multimerization. Suppression of the Akt signaling pathway resulted in an increase in the expression levels of DsbA-L and adiponectin. On the other hand, knocking out FOXO1 or suppressing the activity or expression levels of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) down-regulated DsbA-L and adiponectin. The stimulatory effect of RSV on adiponectin and DsbA-L…
Alcohol is an established carcinogen but not an established risk factor for prostate cancer, despite some recent prospective studies suggesting increased risk among heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of alcohol on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostate cancer risk. Two thousand four hundred PSA detected prostate cancer cases and 12,700 controls matched on age and general practice were identified through a case-control study nested in the PSA-testing phase of a large UK-based randomized controlled trial for prostate cancer treatment (ProtecT). Linear and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate ratios of geometric means (RGMs) of PSA and relative risk ratios (RRRs) of prostate cancer by stage and grade, with 95% confidence intervals…
Agents to counteract acquired resistance to hormonal therapy for breast cancer would substantially enhance the long-term benefits of hormonal therapy. In the present study, we demonstrate how resveratrol (Res) inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation, including MCF-7 tamoxifen-resistant cells (IC(50) values for viability were in the 30-45 muM range). We show that Res, through p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, causes induction of p53, which recruits at the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) proximal promoter, leading to an inhibition of ERalpha expression in terms of mRNA and protein content. These events appear specifically p53 dependent, since they are drastically abrogated with p53-targeting siRNA. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed specific interaction between p53, the Sin3A corepressor, and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which was phosphorylated. The enhancement of the…
The antioxidant properties of wine have been largely related to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability of phenolic compounds. Polyphenolic compounds are hardly absorbed and quickly transformed into metabolites. Their antioxidant activities just as radical scavenging properties are therefore limited, but it is worth looking to other mechanisms. This study intended to test whether wine consumption affects antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression. For this purpose, eight subjects drank 300 mL of red wine every day for a week and ate a low phenolic diet (LPD + W) specifically designed to avoid interferences from other polyphenols in the diet. The control period was a week with this diet, and volunteers refrained from drinking wine (LPD). Blood samples were taken…

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The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer.