BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic index (CMI) is a new index for discriminating diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CMI is affected by habitual alcohol drinking.

METHODS: The subjects were 21572 men (35-60 years) receiving annual health checkups. They were divided by average daily ethanol consumption into non-, light (/=22 and < 44 g), heavy (>/=44 and < 66 g) and very heavy (>/=66 g) drinkers. Relationship between alcohol intake and CMI was investigated with adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise.

RESULTS: Log-transformed CMI was significantly lower in light, moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was lowest in light drinkers, while there was no significant difference in log-transformed CMI of nondrinkers and very heavy drinkers. Odds ratio vs. nondrinkers for high CMI was significantly lower than the reference level of 1.00 in light, moderate and heavy drinkers and was lowest in light drinkers but was not significantly different from the reference level in very heavy drinkers. Odds ratio of subjects with vs. those without high CMI for hyperglycemia was significantly higher than the reference level in all of the alcohol groups and was significantly lower in moderate drinkers but was not significantly different in the other drinker groups when compared with the nondrinker group.

CONCLUSION: There is a U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CMI, and moderate drinking but not excessive drinking attenuates the association between CMI and hyperglycemia.

Published in Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol use during pregnancy can cause considerable developmental problems for children, but effects of light-moderate drinking are uncertain. This study examined possible effects of moderate drinking in pregnancy on children's conduct problems using a Mendelian randomisation design to improve causal inference.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study (ALSPAC) followed children from their mother's pregnancy to age 13 years. Analyses were based on 3,544 children whose mothers self-reported either not drinking alcohol during pregnancy or drinking up to six units per week without binge drinking. Children's conduct problem trajectories were classified as low risk, childhood-limited, adolescence-onset or early-onset-persistent, using six repeated measures of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire between ages 4-13 years. Variants of alcohol-metabolising genes in children were used to create an instrumental variable for Mendelian randomisation analysis.

RESULTS: Children's genotype scores were associated with early-onset-persistent conduct problems (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.04-1.60, p = .020) if mothers drank moderately in pregnancy, but not if mothers abstained from drinking (OR = 0.94, CI = 0.72-1.25, p = .688). Children's genotype scores did not predict childhood-limited or adolescence-onset conduct problems.

CONCLUSIONS: This quasi-experimental study suggests that moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy contributes to increased risk for children's early-onset-persistent conduct problems, but not childhood-limited or adolescence-onset conduct problems.

Published in Pregnant Women

BACKGROUND: Consumption of moderate-to-heavy amounts of alcohol has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although both diseases are main causes of the frailty syndrome, no previous study has assessed the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and risk of frailty in older adults.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 2,086 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 and older, recruited in 2008-2010, and followed through 2012, was carried out. Drinking patterns were self-reported at baseline. Moderate drinking was defined as alcohol intake less than 40g/day for men and less than 24g/day for women. A Mediterranean drinking pattern was defined as moderate alcohol intake, with wine preference (>/=80% of alcohol proceeds from wine) and drinking only with meals. Study participants were followed through 2012 to ascertain incident frailty, defined as >/=2 of the following 4 Fried criteria: exhaustion, muscle weakness, low physical activity, and slow walking speed. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders.

RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.3 (SD = 0.6) years, 292 participants with incident frailty were identified. Compared with nondrinkers, the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval of frailty was 0.90 (0.65-1.25) for moderate drinkers. The corresponding results were 0.74 (0.48-1.16) for wine versus other beverage preference and 0.53 (0.31-0.92) for drinking only with meals versus only outside meals. Finally, compared with nondrinkers, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of frailty was 0.68 (0.47-0.99) for those adhering to the Mediterranean drinking pattern.

CONCLUSIONS: Certain drinking patterns, in particular drinking only with meals and the Mediterranean drinking pattern, are associated with a lower risk of frailty in older adults.

Published in General Health

This study examined the association between moderate drinking at age 16 (adolescence) and alcohol consumption at age 26 (young adulthood), whilst controlling for possible confounding effects at the individual and family level (assessed at birth and age 10). Using the British Cohort Study (BCS70), 6515 respondents provided data on their adolescent alcohol consumption and other behaviours. Of these, 4392 also completed the survey at age 26. Consumption patterns established in adolescence persisted, to a large degree, into early adulthood. Those adolescents who drank moderately in adolescence drank significantly less in adulthood than those adolescents who drank to heavy or hazardous levels. Implications for health promotion strategies and guidance are discussed.

Published in Drinking Patterns

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